China es el mercado más favorable para la economía compartida

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  • La popularidad de la economía compartida para la reserva de viajes de verano se ha triplicado en dos años. El 50% de los viajeros durante este año probablemente utilizarán servicios como Uber, Lyft y Airbnb.
  • La economía más llamativa en este ámbito es la china: Unos 600 millones de chinos participaron en algún tipo de intercambio en 2016, que es casi la mitad de la población del país.
  • Empresas chinas de economía compartida como Ofo y Mobike –que comparten bicicletas- o Misspao –que comparte salas de gimnasio– están ganando gran popularidad.
  • Sin embargo, esta economía también trae riesgos. Ejemplo de ello es la empresa E Umbrella a la que 300.000 de las sombrillas que comercializaba mediante economía colaborativa desaparecieron.

La popularidad de la economía compartida para la reserva de viajes de verano se ha triplicado en dos años. De acuerdo con el estudio anual de Allianz “Allianz Travel Insurance Sharing Economy Index” el 50% de los viajeros durante este año probablemente utilizarán servicios como Uber, Lyft y Airbnb –un 26% muy probablemente, frente a un 25% que lo utilizará en cierta.

Sin embargo, no hay ningún mercado como el de China para este ámbito. Unos 600 millones de chinos participaron en algún tipo de intercambio en 2016, que es casi la mitad de la población del país.

[section label=”Casi la mitad de la población china utiliza economía compartida” anchor=”Casi la mitad de la población china utiliza economía compartida”]

Casi la mitad de la población china utiliza economía compartida

De acuerdo con el estudio anual de Allianz el 50% de los viajeros durante este año probablemente utilizarán servicios como Uber, Lyft y Airbnb. Además, el porcentaje de uso de la economía compartida en EEUU ha aumentado significativamente, pasando de un 17% en 2015 a un 50% en 2017.

Screenshot_35
Fuente: Allianz

La encuesta mostró que este crecimiento se correlaciona con el aumento en la familiaridad con estos servicios. A medida que los años han progresado, la familiaridad ha aumentado significativamente en todos los servicios de la economía compartida con Airbnb mostrando un 51% –hasta un 32% desde 2015– familiaridad entre los estadounidenses y Lyft –56%, hasta 41 puntos desde 2015–.

Screenshot_36
Fuente: Allianz

La economía compartida es gigantesca. Un informe de investigación de Bank of America Merrill Lynch estima que el valor de la misma es de unos 250.000 millones de dólares y está creciendo rápidamente. No es difícil entender por qué ha florecido en los últimos años. Su objetivo es desbloquear el valor de los activos no utilizados o infrautilizados, ahorrándonos tiempo, molestias y – fundamentalmente – dinero.

Pero no hay ninguna economía como la china en este ámbito. La economía compartida de China cubre ahora una amplia gama, desde el uso compartido de bicicletas, vehículos, sombrillas, a espacios de vida y espacios de trabajo, e incluso a conocimientos, habilidades y mano de obra.

Un informe reciente del Centro de Información del Estado mostró que unos 600 millones de chinos participaron en algún tipo de intercambio en 2016, que es casi la mitad de la población del país. El volumen de comercio de la economía compartida del país se duplicó con respecto al año pasado hasta los 3,45 billones de yuanes (unos 510.000 millones de dólares USA) el año pasado, según el informe.

Los grupos de consumidores de rápido crecimiento en China no sólo han apoyado la expansión en el extranjero de las empresas chinas en la industria compartida, sino que también han promovido el crecimiento local de las empresas extranjeras, que consideran el enorme mercado interno de China como “una mina de oro“.

China se ha convertido en el mercado de más rápido crecimiento en el mundo entero para Airbnb“, dijo Ge Hong, vicepresidente de la compañía de distribución compartida, señalando que casi 1,6 millones de turistas chinos utilizaron Airbnb en viajes en el extranjero en 2016, un 142 por ciento más que el año anterior.

Un artículo de opinión de Bloomberg publicado en mayo argumentó que la aceptación de los consumidores chinos de pago móvil es clave en el desarrollo futuro de compartir la economía. El perfil demográfico de China y la naturaleza cambiante del consumo son otros dos factores importantes.

Zhang Xinhong, director de investigación sobre el intercambio de la economía predijo que los campos de manufactura, agricultura, educación y pensiones tendrían gran escala de mercado y potencial de desarrollo, lo cual estaría a la vanguardia de la próxima ola en la economía compartida.

[section label=”La economía compartida implica riesgos a tener en cuenta” anchor=”La economía compartida implica riesgos a tener en cuenta”]

La economía compartida implica riesgos a tener en cuenta

El desarrollo de China exige una innovación constante y soluciones creativas, con mayores requisitos técnicos que otros lugares del mundo, dijo Cheng de Didi, señalando que los modelos de China están siendo copiados por startups en otros países.

Tales innovaciones ya han estado surgiendo una tras otra. Fenda, una aplicación de intercambio de conocimientos creada en 2015, que permite a los usuarios pagar para escuchar las respuestas de preguntas generadas por los usuarios de los expertos de la industria. Recaudó 25 millones de dólares en su ronda de financiación A +.

Cheng admitió que también se enfrentan a numerosos desafíos internacionales, ya que no muchas empresas tienen experiencias exitosas en ese sentido.

Un ejemplo es la empresa china E Umbrella, que se ofrecía a prestar sombrillas. Recientemente ha sido objeto de un duro golpe cuando 300.000 de estas sombrillas desaparecieron pocos meses después del lanzamiento de la empresa. El sistema de economía colaborativa de esta empresa requería que los clientes hicieran un depósito inicial equivalente a poco más de 2 libras, después de lo cual se les cobró 6 libras por cada media hora de uso.

Tal vez el fallo resida en la portabilidad del objeto donde se apoyaba el sistema:  a los habitantes de las ciudades muy ocupadas claramente les gustaba la idea de tener acceso rápido a una sombrilla, pero luego se le olvidaban por completo.

La compañía parecía haber sobrestimado la confianza y la fiabilidad de sus consumidores, sin tener en cuenta el hecho de que los seres humanos muchas veces son egoístas. Afortunadamente, el daño en este caso parece no haber sido prohibitivo, parece que la compañía espera volver a lanzar con 30 millones de paraguas nuevos para el final del año. Pero el caso, sin embargo, sirve como una poderosa metáfora para analizar la economía compartida y los riesgos que lleva.

Otro ejemplo es el de una compañía que se vio obligada a cerrar temporalmente una serie de cápsulas compartidas para los trabajadores privados de sueño en Beijing, Shanghai y Chengdu, debido a que las cápsulas podrían convertirse en un refugio para criminales.

Rachel Botsman, autora del libro The Rise Of Collaborative Consumption, dijo que estamos experimentando “un cambio sísmico desde la obtención y el gasto individuales hacia un redescubrimiento del bien colectivo“. El problema parece ser que no estamos realmente preocupados por este bien colectivo. Lo que nos importa es maximizar nuestros propios recursos.

Parece ser que la demanda gigantesca está alentando el aumento de la oferta a un ritmo tan rápido que muchas personas se arriesgan a perder de vista lo básico: la protección y la regulación. Ejemplo de ello son las demandas por agresiones sexuales de la compañía Uber y el caso de una mujer a la que había asaltado su anfitrión de Airbnb. Por tanto, en ocasiones la economía compartida plantea una serie de preguntas sobre los derechos laborales, los beneficios, la explotación, la regulación y las normas.

[section label=”Mobike, el gigante chino de la bici compartida se está internacionalizando” anchor=”Mobike, el gigante chino de la bici compartida se está internacionalizando”]

Mobike, el gigante chino de la bici compartida se está internacionalizando

A pesar de los riesgos, la economía compartida China está en auge. No sólo está creciendo rápidamente en todo el país, sino que sigue ejerciendo una influencia cada vez mayor sobre la economía mundial al difundir sus innovaciones en todo el mundo.

El gigante chino de la bici compartida Mobike ha anunciado el lanzamiento de su servicio en Londres, mientras que su rival Ofo hizo movimientos similares en Tailandia y Malasia y el miércoles dijo que entraría en Japón.

En marzo, Ofo y Mobike aterrizaron en Singapur. En menos de medio año, las motos naranjas de Mobike se han extendido a Manchester y Salford en Gran Bretaña, Fukuoka y Sapporo en Japón, Milán y Florencia en Italia, entre otros. Mientras tanto, las bicicletas amarillas de Ofo están explorando nuevos mercados y se espera que aterricen en las orillas de 20 países y regiones para finales de 2017.

Esto demuestra que no sólo China tiene una necesidad de compartir bicicletas, es algo que todo el mundo podría hacer juntos“, dijo Chris Martin, vicepresidente de Mobike y jefe de expansión en el extranjero, a Xinhua la semana pasada.

Martin señaló que una combinación de creatividad, ciencia y tecnología, así como el diseño es lo que hace Mobike atractivo en los mercados de ultramar. Desde Asia hasta Europa, el operador chino ha introducido cambios en su esquema, teniendo en cuenta las regulaciones específicas y las preferencias de los clientes. Por ejemplo, las bicicletas en Londres están equipadas con una luz de frente.

Mientras tanto, la compañía líder de viajes en China, Didi Chuxing, ha aumentado la cooperación en el Sudeste Asiático. A finales de julio, la plataforma líder en transporte y pago móvil de la zona, Grab, anunció que Didi y la japonesa SoftBank Group Corp invertirán hasta dos mil millones de dólares en la compañía.

El fundador y director general de Didi, Cheng Wei, afirmó que, mediante la profundización de la asociación estratégica, Didi y Grab reafirman su compromiso compartido de innovar soluciones localizadas a los desafíos del desarrollo urbano mundial desde los mercados de más rápido crecimiento del mundo.

De hecho, Didi ha invertido en las cinco principales plataformas de transporte del mundo, de acuerdo con Cheng, quien también señaló que la firma china espera exportar sus logros y experiencia en innovación de productos y desarrollo tecnológico a los mercados extranjeros.

En el frente técnico, Mobike ya ha impresionado con éxito a los usuarios extranjeros. Las motos, son eficientes, cómodas y “divertidas para montar”, como Helen Pidd de the Guardian compartió en su revisión después de montar en Manchester a principios de julio.

Además, la expansión en el extranjero de compañías como Didi y Mobike también impulsaría la aplicación global y la popularización de modelos de negocios relativos desarrollados en un entorno de pago móvil maduro, dijo Gu Dasong, un experto en compartir transporte de la Universidad Southeast de Nankín.

[section label=”Salas de gimnasio: la última tendencia en la economía compartida china” anchor=”Salas de gimnasio: la última tendencia en la economía compartido”]

Salas de gimnasio: la última tendencia en la economía compartida china

Después de que las bicicletas, los paraguas, los cargadores portátiles y las cápsulas de sueño se hicieran compartibles a través de China, los empresarios comenzaron a mirar a otros mercados, como salas de gimnasio compartidas, que han golpeado las calles en Beijing.

A diferencia de los gimnasios regulares que ofrecen amplios espacios abiertos para que múltiples miembros compartan al mismo tiempo, las salas de gimnasia compartidas son pequeña habitaciones independientes para que las personas usen, a menudo instaladas cerca de las comunidades residenciales.

Cada cuarto de cuatro metros cuadrados está equipado con una cinta de correr, un purificador de aire, un espejo, una televisión y aire acondicionado, y el usuario puede echar las cortinas para la privacidad. Al hacer ejercicio, los usuarios pueden escuchar música, ver películas y revisar correos electrónicos conectándose a Internet.

Similar a usar una bici compartida, Los usuarios pueden localizar un gimnasio compartido a través de la aplicación móvil, reservar una habitación con antelación y escanear un código QR para acceder. Se requiere un depósito reembolsable de 99 yuanes (15 dólares estadounidenses), y los usuarios pagan 0,2 yuanes (0,03 dólares USA) por minuto cada vez que usan la instalación.

Las salas de gimnasio compartidas son creadas por Misspao, una empresa de tecnología con sede en Beijing, fundada en julio. En dos semanas desde su creación, la compañía ya ha asegurado dos rondas de financiación por valor de más de 100 millones (15 millones de dólares).

ALLIANZ. Allianz Travel Insurance Sharing Economy Index. 2017 [consultado 17-08-2017]. Disponible en: http://www.autonomousvehicletech.com/ext/resources/AVT/2017/August/20170803-Sharing-image.pdf

MOBIKE. Mobike is Launching in London. 31 de julio de 2017 [consultado 17-08-2017]. Disponible en:  https://mobike.com/global/blog/post/mobike-london

BANK OF AMERICA MERRILL LYNCH. Bank of America Merrill Lynch Launches One-Stop Collection Solution in China. 7 de agosto de 2017 [consultado 17-08-2017]. Disponible en:  http://newsroom.bankofamerica.com/press-releases/corporate-and-investment-banking-sales-and-trading-treasury-services/bank-america–24

BLOOMBERG. China Is the Future of the Sharing Economy. 19 de mayo de 2017 [consultado 17-08-2017]. Disponible en:  https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-05-18/china-could-be-the-future-of-the-sharing-economy-j2uyrh27

CBS NEWS. Inside China’s booming sharing economy. 1 de agosto de 2017 [consultado 17-08-2017]. Disponible en: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/china-popular-sharing-economy-exploding-didi/

INDEPENDENT. The sharing economy is failing for one simple reason – people can’t be trusted. 30 de julio de 2017 [consultado 17-08-2017]. Disponible en: http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/uber-airbnb-sharing-economy-people-cant-be-trusted-a7867301.html

AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY. Half of Americans plan to use sharing economy services like Airbnb, Uber, and Lyft for summer travel in 2017. 3 de agosto de 2017 [consultado 17-08-2017]. Disponible en: http://www.autonomousvehicletech.com/articles/182-half-of-americans-plan-to-use-sharing-economy-services-like-airbnb-uber-and-lyft-for-summer-travel-in-2017

XINHUA NEWS. Spotlight: China’s sharing economy could drive global growth. 13 de agosto de 2017 [consultado 17-08-2017]. Disponible en: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-08/13/c_136522143.htm

GLOBAL TIMES. Shared gym room, a latest invention of China’s sharing economy. 12 de agosto de 2017 [consultado 17-08-2017]. Disponible en: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1060984.shtml?utm_content=buffera6d23&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer

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  48. Christina was born in the royal castle Tre Kronor on 18 December S. 8 December] 1626. Her parents were the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus and his German wife, Maria Eleonora, had already had two daughters—a stillborn princess in 1620, and then the first Princess Christina, who was born in 1623 and died the following year.3] Excited expectation surrounded Maria Eleonora’s third pregnancy in 1626. When the baby was born, it was first thought to be a boy as it was “hairy” and screamed “with a strong, hoarse voice.”she later wrote in her autobiography that, “Deep embarrassment spread among the women when they discovered their mistake.” The king, though, was very happy, stating, “She’ll be clever, she has made fools of us all!”6] From most accounts, Gustav Adolf appears to have been closely attached to his daughter, and she appears to have admired him greatly.

  49. A court has ruled that the building is illegal, and the €57 million ($64 million) Chateau Diter will now have to be knocked down.
    Property developer Pierre Diter, who owns the chateau in the town of Grasse, in Southern France, has 18 months to raze the building and faces a fine of €200,000 ($226,000), Pierre-Jean Gaury, attorney general at the court of appeal in Aix-en-Provence, told CNN.
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  52. The Portuguese road Prevention agency (PRP) has this week called for more and improved traffic stops in Portugal. The agency has also deemed current actions by law enforcement officials as ineffective in dealing with the majority of serious traffic offences.

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