¿Cómo evolucionará la economía colaborativa durante 2017?

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CLAVES:

  • En 2016 la economía colaborativa creció más rápido de lo esperado y lo seguirá haciendo en 2017.
  • Veremos una llegada de nueva regulación.
  • La movilidad colaborativa se recentralizará en los fabricantes.
  • Las ciudades de convertirán en entornos colaborativos.
  • Los prosumidores se organizarán.
  • Veremos los primeros pasos de las plataformas descentralizadas.

El pasado 2016 ha sido un año intenso para el sector de la economía colaborativa, habiendo marcado un antes y un después para la transformación de sectores como el transporte, el turismo o las finanzas. Pero ¿Qué va a deparar este 2017 en cuanto a su evolución se refiere? Consumo Colaborativo se ha arriesgado a lanzar algunas previsiones:

[section label=”La economía colaborativa creció más rápido de lo esperado y lo seguirá haciendo en 2017″ anchor=”La economía colaborativa creció más rápido de lo esperado y lo seguirá haciendo en 2017″]

En 2016 la economía colaborativa creció más rápido de lo esperado y lo seguirá haciendo en 2017.

Según datos de la consultora PwC, en un estudio preparado dentro de la Agenda Europea de la Economía Colaborativa, la aceleración del impacto económico de la economía colaborativa ha superado las expectativas de los analistas. La tendencia hacia el “crowd capitalism” parece inegable y afectará a todos los sectores.

Fuente: PwC
Fuente: PwC

En España, según el Panel de Hogares de la CNMC, uno de cada cuatro españoles, el 25,7%, utiliza alguna de estas plataformas al menos una vez al año, mientras que entre la población internauta el uso se incrementa hasta el 34,1%. Precisamente las más empleadas entre los internautas son las destinadas a la compra o alquiler de productos de segunda mano, seguidas del alojamiento en casa de otro particular y las que facilitan compartir trayectos en automóvil entre ciudades. Las plataformas con menor uso son las destinadas al transporte urbano (2,4%), a la financiación de proyectos (4,4%) y a la realización de trabajos y tareas (3,7%).

Según los mismos datos hay un alto grado de satisfacción con el uso de las plataformas. Los viajes largos que facilitan compañías como BlaBlaCar (que cuenta con 3 millones de usuarios en España) resultan satisfactorios al 67,1% de sus usuarios, el mayor porcentaje en este tipo de servicios, por delante de los outlets online como Wallapop (entre 8 y 13 millones de usuarios activos según las fuentes) (60,9%), las plataformas de alojamiento tipo Airbnb (España es el tercer destino de Europa) (60,4%) y las de intercambio de tareas como Taskia o Guudjob (44,1%).

[section label=”La regulación llegará en 2017″ anchor=”La regulación llegará en 2017″]

La regulación llegará en 2017

2016 nos ha dejado titulares como “La economía colaborativa choca contra el muro de la administración”.

Fuente: Europa Press
Fuente: Europa Press

Documento relacionado en Thinknowa:

No es para menos con las multas del Ayuntamiento de Barcelona a Airbnb (60.000 euros en diciembre 2015, 600.000 euros en noviembre de 2016). Sin embargo, la Generalitat (que fue la pionera en multar a Airbnb en 2014 con 30.000) ha perdido ahora una importante batalla: un juez de lo contencioso-administrativo ha estimado el recurso de Airbnb argumentando que no hay base para considerar la web “ilegal”. La sentencia podría tumbar también las multas impuestas el Ayuntamiento de Barcelona.

Blablacar ha denunciado a España por las sanciones ante la Unión Europea y es que se trata del único país del mundo donde BlaBlaCar tiene problemas legales para operar. Por su lado Uber ha ganado también tres recursos contra las sanciones de la Generalitat.

Además del tema de las licencias hay dos aspectos clave que deberán clarificarse en 2017:

  • ¿Cuándo una plataforma es intermediario digital y cuándo una plataforma se considera proveedor de servicio? El resultado del juicio iniciado a Uber en Bruselas puede ser clave para clarificar este punto y los deberes asociados en cada caso.
  • El surgimiento de algún tipo de nueva figura laboral que se adapte a las necesidades de aquellos que generan ingresos de manera regular mediante estas plataformas. Parece que el futuro del trabajo va en esta dirección, aunque también es importante plantearse ¿y si el trabajo no es la solución, sino el problema?

Documento relacionado en Thinknowa:

Para poder avanzar en todos estos temas será necesaria la innovacion regulatoria y ésta es improbable que llegue desde los propios reguladores. Sin embargo, hay un importante rol que pueden jugar los think-tanks, académicos, inversores y las propias startups al aportar nuevas ideas en cómo regular la economía colaborativa.

[section label=”La movilidad colaborativa se recentralizará en los fabricantes” anchor=”La movilidad colaborativa se recentralizará en los fabricantes”]

La movilidad colaborativa se recentralizará en los fabricantes

Este año se ha consolidado el interés de la industria tradicional del automóvil en realizar alianzas y compras en todo el sector de las startups de movilidad más o menos colaborativa. Quedan ya pocas startups que no tengan relación directa con un fabricante de vehículos.

Todo apunta a que la movilidad será un servicio y que los vehículos autónomos (con trayectos compartidos) tendrán un papel importante más pronto que tarde. Se abren así varios escenarios acerca de qué empresas y bajo que configuración/alianzas van a liderarlo.

Fuente: CB Insights
Fuente: CB Insights

En la ciudad del futuro, las personas, simplemente, no necesitan tener un coche. Esto coincide con las tendencias que la propia industria del automóvil tiene ya sumamente claras: en el futuro, las personas no comprarán vehículos, sino que los usarán mayoritariamente como servicio. Los vehículos pertenecerán a flotas que los explotarán, y que estarán compuestas por vehículos eléctricos o propulsados por energías limpias, y de conducción autónoma, según vaticinan expertos como Enrique Dans.

En este ámbito Madrid lleva la delantera en España con la coexistencia en la capital de Car2Go (de Daimler), la reciente llegada de Emov (grupo Peugot), BlueMove (con acuerdos con Kia y adquirida por EuropeCar), Respiro (con un acuerdo con la empresa Alsa). Muy interesante la integración de estas dos últimas en el servicio de transporte público de la región.

En paralelo Uber ha lanzado en Madrid y en primicia mundial el servicio UberONE (propuesta 100% eléctrica con vehículos Tesla S) hace pocos días. Tesla por su lado está creando su servicio tipo Uber y Uber tiene un acuerdo con Volvo para los vehículos autónomos (que ya están en funcionando en Pitsburg y San Francisco)

La pregunta con todo este escenario es ¿qué depara el futuro a empresas como SocialCar, Drivy (que recibió 31M€ en 2016, con el grupo Mobivia como inversor) o incluso la propia BlaBlaCar? 2017 podría deparar algunas noticias interesantes al respecto

[section label=”Las ciudades se convierten en entornos colaborativos” anchor=”Las ciudades se convierten en entornos colaborativos”]

Las ciudades se convertirán en entornos colaborativos

Las ciudades, con su abundancia y proximidad de personas y bienes, son tierra fértil para el desarrollo de la economía colaborativa.  Sin ir más lejos el evento OuiShare Fest 2017, que se celebrará en París, estará integramente dedicado a las ciudades.

Seul y Amsterdam siguen siendo las ciudades más reconocidas en el ámbito de las ciudades colaborativas con planes específicos, desarrollo de políticas públicas, comunicación de sus planes y resultados, etc. Lo interesante de este 2016 es que en ambos casos han formado alianzas con otras ciudades de su entorno en Korea y en Holanda respectivamente.

En 2017 veremos las primeras alianzas globales de ciudades colaborativas. También podría verse ya en funcionamiento alguna ciudad colaborativa en América Latina y/o China.

Fuente: Consumo Colaborativo
Fuente: Consumo Colaborativo

Las ciudades deberán empezar a tratar a las plataformas de economía colaborativa como infraestructura ciudadana para la colaboración. Se puede hacer el símil con construir una plaza donde poner un mercado los domingos o la gestión de los cables para que todos tengamos electricidad en casa.

Como toda infraestructura necesita de una inversión (propiedad) y una gestión (gobernanza). Cada vez hay más voces a favor de una economía colaborativa procomún y responsable. No obstante, no hay que confundir esto con plataformas de titularidad pública (aunque es una opción) si no que se trata más de que las políticas públicas incentiven y favorezcan el desarrollo de plataformas de economía colaborativa de carácter social y orientación al procomún. También hay un debate abierto alrededor de la soberanía tecnológica de las ciudades.

[section label=”Los prosumidores se organizarán” anchor=”Los prosumidores se organizarán”]

Los “Prosumidores” se organizarán

La institución y el rol de los sindicatos tradicionales deberá ser replanteado a la luz del “crowd capitalism”. A inicios de diciembre un grupo de sindicatos de varios países han presentado el Frankfurt Paper on Platform-Based Work para intentar ser relevantes en esta redifinición de su propia función con propuestas concretas.

En todo caso debido los propios ciudadanos productores (o prosumidores) ya han decidido organizarse para defender sus derechos frente a las plataformas y frente a las administraciones. Algunos ejemplos:

  • La asociación Veins i Amfitrions de Barcelona (VIA) agrupa a usuarios de “home sharing” que usan plataformas digitales como Airbnb y otros. Han hecho tutoriales de cómo pagar impuestos, participan en los procesos de regulación del “home sharing” para distingirlo de los apartamentos turísticos e incluso estan pensando en promover algun tipo de cooperativa para dar cobertura a las necesidades de los asociados.
  • En Nueva York hay el Gremio de Conductores Independientes (IDG). El colectivo fue promovido por Uber mismo para poder dialogar con sus conductores de manera organizada.
  • También hemos visto protestas y huelgas de usuarios productores en plataformas como Uber Francia o Deliveroo Reino Unido (estos incluso crearon una caja de resistencia mediante crowdfunding)

En 2017 veremos más de estos “crowd actores” y como son reconocidos como interlocutores válidos.

En paralelo asociaciones de usuarios (como la OCU) tomarán un papel más activo en informar y defender los derechos de los usuarios (productores y consumidores) de la economía colaborativa. Prueba de ello es la creación de su portal Ciudadano Colaborativo.

[section label=”Primeros pasos hacia plataformas descentralilzadas” anchor=”Primeros pasos hacia plataformas descentralizadas”]

Fuente: Consumo Colaborativo
Fuente: Consumo Colaborativo

Primeros pasos hacia plataformas descentralizadas

Ya sea por la presión regulatoria, por reducir costes operativos, o por las pruebas de innovación con la blockchain, veremos pasos más sólidos hacia plataformas descentralizadas.

Uno de los ejemplos a destacar es OpenBazaar, plataforma que se define como “Un mercado gratuito para todos, sin comisiones, ni restricciones” (“A Free Market for all. No Fees. No Restrictions.”).

No se trata de una página web ni una app móvil si no que es un software que se instala en el ordenador y pone en contacto a vendedores y consumidores de todo el mundo a través de un modelo P2P, al estilo de los tradicionales programas de compartición de archivos P2P, como e-Mule o Bit Torrent.

CONSUMO COLABORATIVO. Economía colaborativa: 6 predicciones para 2017. 22 de Diciembre de 2016 [consultado 04-01-2017]. Disponible en: http://www.consumocolaborativo.com/2016/12/22/economia-colaborativa-6-predicciones-para-2017/

BEZ. Sindicatos de todo el mundo lanzan una ofensiva ante el “feudalismo digital”. 21 de Diciembre de 2016 [consultado 04-01-2017]. Disponible en: http://www.bez.es/820611116/Sindicatos-de-todo-el-mundo-frente-contra-el-feudalismo-digital.html

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