Crear valor a partir del Internet de las cosas (IoT)

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businessman hand showing about cloud network

CLAVES:

  • El Internet de las Cosas supondrán un cambio cualitativo en la gestión de productos y servicios en el futuro.
  • Deloitte lanza un informe en el que estudia el panorama de aplicación fututo del IoT en el ámbito empresarial en general, y financiero en concreto.
  • En el sector financiero las principales ventajas que se le atribuyen al uso del IoT son 3: mejorar el rendimiento operativo, la experiencia del cliente, y el precio del producto.
  • IoT crecerá a una tasa anual del 32.5% para el periodo comprendido entre 2013 y 2020.

Aunque pueda parecer un tanto incierta la aplicación de las tecnologías propias de Internet de las Cosas a ciertos ámbitos, como por ejemplo las instituciones y servicios financieros, un gran cambio cualitativo llegará de su mano para todos los sectores relacionados con Internet y con las nuevas tecnologías.

El IoT se convertirá de este modo en un ámbito en el que todas las empresas deban trabajar para lograr aprovecharse de sus oportunidades. Esto unido a las halagüeñas previsiones de los especialistas en cuanto a las buenas repercusiones económicas que acarreará hasta 2020 la adaptación al IoT,  no hace más que ampliar su dimensión de aplicación.

El informe en el que a continuación nos centraremos, “The derivative effect: How financial services can make IoT technology pay off” de Deloitte, expone el panorama con el que las instituciones de servicios financieros se encontrarán al explorar la nueva dimensión del IoT.

Contextualización

Inicialmente el Internet  de las cosas era visto como una mera comunicación entre máquinas de grandes volúmenes de datos, pero su valor va mucho más allá de esta funcionalidad. Por ello es muy interesante recordar la definición que Deloitte aporta en este informe sobre el IoT: “Se puede definir el IO como la tecnología que conecta  objetos (incluidas las personas) a una red con el fin de facilitar el acceso a la información sobre un determinado aspecto de una realidad”. Si completamos esta definición con la información aportada en 1999 por Kevin Ashton (padre del término) es importante destacar la idea de que los ordenadores usarán sus propias técnicas y métodos para recopilar la información.

En el sector financiero las principales ventajas que se le atribuyen al uso del IoT son 3: mejorar el rendimiento operativo, la experiencia del cliente, y el precio del producto.

ECKENRODE,Jim. The derivative effect: How financial services can make IoT technology pay off. 13-10-2015 [consultado 05-11-2015]. Disponible en: http://dupress.com/articles/internet-of-things-iot-in-financial-services-industry/

Si deseamos conocer los ámbitos reales de aplicación de estas nuevas tecnologías en la actualidad podemos mencionar los siguientes, entre muchos otros:

  • Sensores en automóviles: muy utilizados sobre todo en el sector asegurador.
  • Sensores en edificios comerciales: aplicados al control de temperatura, iluminación, seguridad, etc.
  • Método de información sobre objetos físicos tangibles.

Potencial del Internet de las cosas

En el sector  financiero ya se están aplicando las posibilidades del IoT a diversas áreas: hábitos de conducción, salud, etc. Su potencial futuro, por tanto, está más que comprobado en este segmento del mercado, aunque sería interesante seguir realizando análisis para identifica r qué tipo de información de la gestionada por esta nueva tecnología le puede ser útil.

Fuente: Deloitte University Press
Fuente: Deloitte University Press
  • Pronóstico de despliegue

Según un reciente informe de Gartner, el Internet de las Cosas crecerá a una tasa anual del 32.5% para el periodo comprendido entre 2013 y 2020, alcanzando los 25 millones de unidades en sistemas que usan estas funcionalidades. En este desarrollo se observará la aplicación de más de 200 dispositivos de distintos tipos para realizar mediciones y aportar información.

Fuente: Deloitte University Press
Fuente: Deloitte University Press

Siguiente este análisis de Gartner se podría decir que una cuarta parte de los dispositivos existentes en el año 2013 han sido de aplicación en el sector de los servicios financieros. Este año 2015 se espera un aumento de un tercio en el uso de distintos sensores y ya para 2020 su crecimiento se elevará hasta el 50%.

Parece que el mayor crecimiento se producirá en todos aquellos aspectos relacionados con la seguridad del hogar, algo que podría beneficiar bastante a los prestamistas hipotecarios para establecer valoraciones sobre en los procesos de contratación de hipotecas.

El crecimiento general de sensores conectados está siendo robusto, tal y como se observa en el gráfico, y consigue superar porcentajes del 20% sobre la base anual.

Fuente: Deloitte University Press
Fuente: Deloitte University Press
  • Evaluación del potencial

Como ocurre en muchos contextos, los datos para evaluar el crecimiento bruto de sensores relacionados con el IoT no aportan todos los datos necesarios para evaluar el uso futuro de los mismos. Por ejemplo, existen muchos dispositivos de los que todavía no se conocen sus posibles capacidades para la extracción de datos.

La curva del valor de la información (en inglés Information Value Loop) es un método interesante para medir y diferenciar los productos y servicios que se pueden convertir en una fuente de valor.

Fuente: Deloitte University Press
Fuente: Deloitte University Press

Para obtener información y crear valor, tal y como vemos en el gráfico anterior debemos recorrer los siguientes estados:

  • Un acto, supervisado por un sensor, crea la información.
  • Esa información para a través de una red para poder ser comunicada.
  • Durante ese proceso es sometida a diversos estándares (legales, técnicos, sociales, etc.) que permitirán que sea agregada a través del tiempo y del espacio.
  • Durante el proceso de inteligencia agregada se utilizarán técnicas analíticas para procesar la información.
  • El paso final “augmented behaviour” abre el camino a las distintas formas y decisiones humanas que se encaminan a una acción final.

El control final del valor creado por la información será una función propia de los controladores de valor o “value drivers”.

  • Value drivers

Las grandes cantidades de datos que los dispositivos conectados al IoT pueden aportar también pueden derivar retos basados en su fiabilidad y exactitud. Así, no todos los datos generados por el IoT podrán ser útiles, y las empresas deberán adquirir experiencia en el uso y gestión de los mismos.

Algunos de los problemas a los que los controladores de valor se tendrán que enfrentar en este contexto del valor de la información pueden ser: la frecuencia, la latencia o la puntualidad de la información. Y estos aspectos se truncan en claves cuando las empresas necesitan datos en tiempo real para mantener sus flujos de mercado.

 Fuente: Deloitte University Press
Fuente: Deloitte University Press
  • Cuellos de botella.

Parece, a la vista de todo lo explicado hasta el momento, que los mayores problemas en todo el proceso de datos relacionados con el IoT se encuentran en los procesos de comunicación. Esto se debe a que sigue existiendo cierta reticencia por parte de los clientes/usuarios a compartir sus datos con las empresas, y más concretamente, con las del ámbito financiero.

A pesar de que algún día se pueda superar el “cuello de botella” de la comunicación, no debemos olvidar de que para el sector financiero y asegurador el análisis, la agregación y la salida de datos se convierten en nuevos y potenciales “cuellos de botella”.

Visión de futuro

Para ayudar a conocer y establecer los modelos de futuro relativos a los datos y al Internet de las cosas expertos del Deloitte Center for Financial Services han realizado una simulación, encabezada por Wikistrat, sobre los escenarios futuros del IoT. En el proyecto, llevado a cabo en julio de este año, se contó con la participación de más de 50 expertos de 20 países distintos.

El estudio se centró en 6 sectores específicos  de la industria y realizó previsiones y descripciones sobre sobre las oportunidades y desafíos del IoT. Veamos detenidamente cada uno de esos ejemplos:

  • Banca

La apertura a nuevos mercados y la captación de nuevos segmentos de clientes se convierte en la principal aplicación de futuro que parece tener el IoT en este sector.  A su vez, la suscripción de créditos y los procesos de predicción de la solvencia, son dos de las áreas en las que más uso de hará de la analítica de datos.

  • Mercados de capitales

Las actividades de inversión y comerciales son los sectores más interesados en el futuro del IoT en este ámbito. El análisis de las burbujas de mercado sin la necesidad de participación humana o el estudio del comportamiento de los inversores son otras de las posibilidades observadas.

  • Seguros

El uso de sensores en el área de auto aporta grandes posibilidades de futuro para que las aseguradoras conozcan los comportamientos de sus asegurados (evaluación de riesgos), así como los acontecimientos realmente sucedidos en un incidente.

  • Gestión económica y de inversiones

Es previsible que los gestores de inversiones echen mano de la información aportada por el ecosistema del IoT para adaptar sus decisiones de inversión y de asignación de activos a los comportamientos, preferencias y ubicaciones de los clientes. Al mismo tiempo, las ofertas de inversión realizadas estarían totalmente adaptadas a los intereses de los clientes, y la tolerancia a los riesgos derivados de las inversiones también se vería incrementada al poseer mayores volúmenes de datos analíticos.

La automatización de carteras es el último aspectos de aplicación del IoT que los expertos de Wikistrat barajan para el futuro de este sector.

  • Bienes raíces comerciales

El surgimiento de mercados de licitación en tiempo real en bienes raíces comerciales es otro de los escenarios previstos por los especialistas. Las mediciones realizadas en los edificios sobre aspectos de seguridad, comodidad, etc., marcan el camino que seguirá el sector gracias al IoT.

  • Gestión de riesgos

Realizar ciertas mediciones (de muy diversos aspectos: estrés, aprovechamiento del tiempo, etc.) puede convertirse en un nuevo método de valorar el riesgo y mejorar el rendimiento de los empleados en las empresas.

Aplicar y dar sentido a las nuevas medidas

Las empresas no se deben retrasan más en conocer y planear las funcionalidades de esta nueva tecnología de datos. En 2012 menos del 15% de las empresas de servicios financieros habían planificado o implementado alguna solución tecnológica basada en el IoT.

Las empresas deben empezar a explorar los impactos potenciales y las oportunidades relacionadas con el despliegue de las tecnologías del  IoT, y comenzar la formulación de estrategias sobre la manera de sacar provecho de estos avances, utilizando la información del valor.

ECKENRODE,Jim. The derivative effect: How financial services can make IoT technology pay off. 13-10-2015 [consultado 05-11-2015]. Disponible en: http://dupress.com/articles/internet-of-things-iot-in-financial-services-industry/

Las metodologías de “prueba y error” se consideran el mejor método para aprovechar rápidamente todas las funcionalidades que estas nuevas tecnologías ponen a nuestro alcance tanto para mejorar la experiencia del cliente como para desarrollar una mejor estrategia operativa.

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