El impacto de la economía colaborativa es ya irreversible

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CLAVES:

  • La economía colaborativa es una de las tendencias tecnológicas más disruptivas que se han vivido en las últimas décadas.
  • IDC estima un negocio alrededor de la economía colaborativa en torno a los 15.000 millones de dólares.
  • Esta cifra se incrementará hasta los 350.000 millones de dólares en apenas cinco años.
  • Los actores tradicionales, deben entender que tienen que evolucionar, si no quieren desaparecer en el mercado. Y para ello no pueden ignorar a la economía colaborativa.
  • La colaboración es la vía para evitar la incidencia negativa en las cuentas de resultados de los recursos infrautilizados. Prácticamente ninguna empresa utiliza el 100% de sus recursos productivos.

La economía colaborativa es una de las tendencias tecnológicas más disruptivas que se han vivido en las últimas décadas. Y lo es no por su innovación técnica (consistente en la mayoría de los casos en una simple aplicación web y móvil) sino por el concepto y el cambio de paradigma que encierra en su interior: que los ciudadanos dejen de ser simples consumidores de bienes y servicios para compartir sus propios recursos con otros usuarios, sin intermediarios ni empresas de por medio, a cambio de dinero.

Una nueva fórmula de actividad que ya mueve un ingente negocio en todo el mundo… y las perspectivas señalan un futuro donde la economía colaborativa seguirá creciendo exponencialmente. En la actualidad, la firma de análisis IDC estima un negocio alrededor de la economía colaborativa en torno a los 15.000 millones de dólares, cifra que se incrementará hasta los 350.000 millones de dólares en apenas cinco años.

Todos los sectores e industrias se están viendo afectados en mayor o menor medida por la nueva economía colaborativa; incluso las mayores empresas nativas digitales se tienen que enfrentar a esta inusitada competencia. Un claro ejemplo de esta disrupción es Etsy: una plataforma de venta colaborativa online que cuenta con más de 800.000 tiendas, más de 1.400 millones de visitas mensuales y más de 18 millones de productos en venta. Con estas cifras, Etsy y su modelo de negocio basado en la colaboración, es un serio competidor no solo para los retailers tradicionales, sino también para los grandes monstruos del B2C online como Amazon, Jet.com o Ebay.

El germen de la economía colaborativa

En una crisis tan profunda como la que hemos vivido, ha sido imprescindible tener que estar en permanente búsqueda de nuevas oportunidades de negocio y de formas distintas de hacer las cosas para poder entrar y sobrevivir en el mercado”, explica José Antonio Lorenzo, Director General de IDC España. “Estamos ante consumidores con nuevas necesidades, formas de consumir y decidir, para los que la tecnología se ha convertido en parte de su vida”.

¿Ha sido la crisis económica la causa de que los ciudadanos hayan buscado nuevas vías de ingreso con lo que más tenían a mano y aprovechando la tecnología para poder comercializar sus bienes y servicios? “Sin ninguna duda, la crisis ha sido uno de los factores claves para el desarrollo de la nueva economía colaborativa. La necesidad de encontrar un hueco en el mercado, ha hecho que haya sido necesario innovar para desarrollar nuevos modelos de negocio”, añade Lorenzo.

Además de ello, los analistas entienden que una de las principales razones que han impulsado el desarrollo de la economía colaborativa han sido las tecnologías alrededor de las redes sociales y la movilidad. Una vez que los usuarios ya están habituados a compartir contenidos e información personal través de plataformas online, el siguiente paso natural parece ser sacar provecho económico de esta incipiente comunidad de usuarios, aprovechando recursos propios infrautilizados, como el coche (Uber, BlaBlaCar) o vivienda (Airbnb), entre otros.

El impacto en las industrias tradicionales

“Los actores tradicionales, deben entender que tienen que evolucionar, si no quieren desaparecer en el mercado”. Así de contundente se muestra José Antonio Lorenzo, quien asume que “todo lo que nos rodea ha cambiado. Las formas de comunicarnos, de elegir un producto o de comprar, no tienen nada que ver con lo que teníamos hasta hace muy pocos años”.

En este nuevo entorno, los sectores tradicionales como el hotelero, el de bienes de consumo y retail, el de la automoción o el del entretenimiento son algunos de los que se ya se están viendo altamente impactados por la entrada de nuevos actores que construyen su oferta y compiten a través de la colaboración.

“Más del 30% de los puestos de trabajo de una oficina están sin ocupar. El sector industrial tiene de media un 20% de su capacidad sin utilizar. El 25% de los camiones americanos viajan vacíos diariamente. La mayor parte de les empresas no utilizan el 100% de sus recursos productivos, explica el director general de IDC en España. “Con todo ello, las cuentas de resultados de estas compañías se ven afectadas negativamente por la infrautilización de sus capacidades. Nosotros pensamos que este problema se puede convertir en una oportunidad de ser más eficientes y rentables, si incorporan la colaboración dentro de su modelo de negocio. Ya estamos viendo a nuestro alrededor empresas que están poniendo en marcha esta idea”.

Lorenzo se refiere al caso de éxito de Marriot, uno de los gigantes hoteleros a nivel mundial, el cual ha firmado un acuerdo de colaboración con la plataforma online LiquidSpace para convertir salas de reuniones vacías en espacios de trabajo para empresas.

No se pueden poner barreras al mar

Ante las quejas de muchas asociaciones contra estos nuevos modelos económicos (como los taxistas contra Uber, sin ir más lejos), José Antonio Lorenzo cree que no es posible poner límites al desarrollo de este nuevo paradigma“Las barreras o las protestas no son la solución. El mercado ha cambiado. La forma de consumir también. Las preferencias de los consumidores ya nada tienen que ver con lo que veníamos viendo hasta ahora. La única forma que tienen las empresas tradicionales de continuar en el mercado es incorporar la innovación como parte de su ADN. Es necesario que hagan cosas distintas, para obtener resultados distintos”.

Ya hay empresas tradicionales que han entendido que tienen que avanzar en esta línea y están desarrollando nuevas ofertas innovadoras, apoyándose en la colaboración. BMW con DriveNow y Grupo Daimler con Car2Go son dos claros ejemplos. “Ambas han entendido que las personas se están planteando comprar movilidad sin tener que comprar un coche y han hecho de la colaboración una palanca para desarrollar un nuevo modelo de negocio basado en compartir el uso del vehículo”, afirma Lorenzo.

TICBEAT. ¿Cuál es el impacto de la economía colaborativa en la economía tradicional?. 17 de julio de 2016 [Consultado 18-07-2016]. Disponible en: http://www.ticbeat.com/tecnologias/cual-es-el-impacto-de-la-economia-colaborativa-en-la-economia-tradicional/

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