El primer estudio que define qué es y qué no es economía colaborativa

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CLAVES:

  • La popularización del término de economía colaborativa ha generado mucha confusión sobre su significado.
  • El fenómeno crece a una gran velocidad, en 2015 generó unos ingresos brutos en la Unión Europea de 28.000 millones de euros, y según PWC, para 2025 alcanzará los 570.000 millones de dólares.
  • Por lo que según un nuevo estudio de Adigital y Sharing España es necesario categorizar y dejar claro lo que significa y lo que no economía colaborativa.
  • Para esta categorización, Adigital se fija especialmente en el rol que desempeñan las plataformas en tres fenómenos como son el de economía colaborativa, economía bajo demanda y economía de acceso.

Desde que en 2011 se definiera por primera vez el fenómeno de la economía colaborativa como una de las diez tendencias que cambiarían el mundo, son muchas las startups que se ha ido creando y crecido bajo este modelo de negocio.

El fenómeno crece a una gran velocidad, en 2015 generó unos ingresos brutos en la Unión Europea de 28.000 millones de euros, según un informe de la Comisión Europea, y según datos de la consultora PWC en 2016 se habló de un mercado global potencial que podría alcanzar los 570.000 millones de dólares para 2025.

Captura1
Fuente: Vecdis. Datos de PWC

[section label=”El término genera mucha confusión” anchor=”El término genera mucha confusión”]

El término genera mucha confusión

Sin embargo, la popularización del término de economía colaborativa ha generado mucha confusión sobre su significado, algo que, según la Asociación Española de la Economía Digital (Adigital), debe evitarse si se quiere impulsar y regular los nuevos sectores vinculados a internet.

Por este mismo motivo es por el que esta Asociación junto con Sharing España han presentado “el primer estudio que define qué es y qué no es economía colaborativa y que además clasifica las actividades que tienen lugar dentro de las plataformas digitales que operan en este sector”. Fijándose en aspectos como el papel de las plataformas y el rol de los usuarios dentro de ellas.

“Desde Sharing España hemos venido observando una fragmentación cada vez mayor de este concepto, desde aproximaciones bastante restrictivas, que solo consideran economía colaborativa los modelos entre particulares o P2P (peer to peer), hasta posiciones más amplias que también consideran incluidas la denominada economía bajo demanda o de acceso”, ha subrayado José Luis Zimmermann, director general de Adigital y portavoz de Sharing España. “Por eso, hemos considerado oportuno realizar este ejercicio de análisis y clasificación”.

Para esta categorización, Adigital se fija especialmente en el rol que desempeñan las plataformas en tres fenómenos como son el de economía colaborativa, economía bajo demanda y economía de acceso.

“La actividad de la plataforma es la de intermediación propia de un prestador de servicios de la sociedad de la información”, asegura el estudio. “Esta actividad, por sí misma, no es lo que se considera economía colaborativa o bajo demanda, sino que es una actividad mercantil de intermediación que favorece la puesta en contacto entre usuarios para que sean ellos los que puedan llevar a cabo las actividades de la economía colaborativa o bajo demanda propiamente dichas”.

[section label=”Tipos de usuarios y actividades” anchor=”Tipos de usuarios y actividades”]

Tipos de usuarios y actividades

Pero primero, antes de la categorización, Adigital explica los tipos de usuarios que utilizan estas plataformas y la clase de actividad que puede haber entre ellos. En primer lugar Adigital distingue entre, usuario, cualquier persona física o jurídica que se registra en una de estas plataformas y que interactúa con otras personas registradas; consumidor, que es aquel usuario que se relaciona con profesionales dentro de la plataforma; Adigital define proveedor, como el usuario que aprovecha estas plataformas como canal de venta, además del suyo tradicional; profesional, es el usuario que lleva varias actividades o presta varios servicios con ánimo de lucro y a través de una o varias plataformas; y por último Adigital habla del perfil del no profesional,  el cual es un usuario que lleva a cabo una actividad sin ánimo de lucro y sin ninguna intención comercial, y a través de una o varias plataformas.

Captura5
Fuente Vecdis. Datos de Adigital

Con respecto a las actividades que pueden llevar a cabo entre si los usuarios, Adigital distingue entre, actividades altruistas y de donación, son aquellas que se realizan de forma gratuita o con la finalidad de un intercambio, el perfil del no profesional son los que más realizan esta actividad; actividades sin ánimo de lucro, son aquellas actividades destinadas a compartir gastos entre los usuarios con la finalidad de cubrir los costes, pero no de lucrarse por ello, el mejor ejemplo es el de compartir coche; y por último están las actividades con ánimo de lucro, en estas actividades se genera una ganancia patrimonial que supera los gastos básicos, esto genera un beneficio para el usuario proveedor.

Captura6
Fuente Vecdis. Datos de Adigital

[section label=”Economía colaborativa” anchor=”Economía colaborativa”]

Economía colaborativa?

Entran dentro de la economía colaborativa aquellos modelos en los que una plataforma digital actúa como intermediaria, facilitando la utilización, el intercambio o la inversión de bienes o recursos, entre iguales (particulares o empresas), o de particular a profesional (siempre que parta del primero como ocurre en el crowdfunding), con o sin contraprestación económica entre los usuarios.

En esta categoría entrarían ejemplos como el alquiler de viviendas entre particulares (AirBnB y Couchsurfing), o el carpooling, con aplicaciones como Blablacar y Amovens, el crowdfunding con aplicaciones como Goteo, Verkami o ULULE (plataforma de crowdfunding de recompensa líder en Europa que ayudan a emprendedores a hacer realidad sus ideas), y la compraventa y alquiler de objetos de segunda mano, con aplicaciones como eBay, Wallapop o Relendo.

[section label=”Economía bajo demanda” anchor=”Economía bajo demanda”]

Economía bajo demanda

En la economía bajo demanda, se pueden encontrar aquellos modelos de consumo y servicios basados en la intermediación entre la oferta y la demanda generada normalmente de profesional a consumidor (B2C), es decir se establece entre los usuarios una relación comercial

Esta intermediación se genera a través de plataformas digitales, la cual actúa de intermediaria, y cuya prestación se origina en base a las necesidades y preferencias que el usuario demanda, prestándose normalmente a cambio de una contraprestación económica y habitualmente con ánimo de lucro.

La diferencia entre este tipo de y los modelos colaborativos es que entre los usuarios existe siempre una relación comercial, es decir, son plataformas en las que tiene lugar la prestación de un servicio ya sea por parte de profesionales o por parte de particulares, dependiendo del modelo.

Dos ejemplos de plataformas de este estilo para el sector del transporte serían UberX o Cabify, y para el sector de las microtareas está Etece, un marketplace de servicios, donde ponen en contacto a clientes con profesionales autónomos para la realización de tareas del hogar y de oficina.

[section label=”Economía de acceso” anchor=”Economía de acceso”]

Economía de acceso

Por último, en el estudio de Adigital, definen la economía de acceso como aquellos modelos de consumo en los cuales una empresa, con fines comerciales, pone a disposición de un conjunto de usuarios unos bienes para su uso temporal, adaptándose al tiempo de uso efectivo que requieren dichos usuarios y flexibilizando la localización espacial de los mismos”.

Es decir, prácticas como el carsharing o el coworking, según Adigital, no deben clasificarse como economía colaborativa, sino como economía de acceso.

Si bien la economía colaborativa ya fomenta el acceso a la propiedad de los bienes no es exclusiva para eso, en cambio la economía de acceso hace referencia únicamente a los modelos en los que la plataforma digital sí presta el servicio subyacente y los usuarios normalmente no tienen contacto directo entre sí para efectuar las transacciones.

Ejemplos de este tipo de economía sería Bluemove o Car2Go, los cuales permiten compartir un coche que es propiedad de la empresa titular de la plataforma, entre varias personas de manera no simultánea. Y ocurre lo mismo con los espacios de coworking que permiten alquilar zonas de trabajo por periodos de tiempo corto o de mayor duración, como por ejemplo, PopPlaces, una plataforma de alquiler de espacios por días fundada en España.

[section label=”Tipos de sectores de actividad” anchor=”Tipos de sectores de actividad”]

Tipos de sectores de actividad

A medida que tanto la economía colaborativa como la economía bajo demanda y la economía de acceso van creciendo se van generando cada vez más modelos de negocio que es necesario categorizar, estos modelos, Adigital y Sharing España los ha clasificado por sectores, diferenciando así entre las actividades referentes al alojamiento, a las finanzas, a la movilidad y el transporte, a las tareas y el trabajo, al consumo en general, al conocimiento y la información, la gastronomía y los modelos basados en comunidades de usuarios.

Dentro del sector de alojamiento, se pueden encontrar, el modelo temporal entre particulares, el temporal B2C y el intercambio de casas.  En el sector finanzas, están el crowdfunding de donación, crowdfunding de recompensas, equity crowdfunding, crowdlending, crowdgifting, fintech P2P o P2B, seguros P2P y cambio de divisa entre particulares.

Con respecto al sector de movilidad y transporte están los modelos de carpooling, car sharing, ridepooling, alquiler de coches entre particulares, plazas de aparcamiento, tren, servicios de vehículos con conductor, servicios de bicicletas compartidas, logística P2P y logística B2C. En el sector de tareas y trabajo se encuentran los bancos del tiempo, turismo de experiencias y guías turísticos, microtareas generales y microtareas especializadas.

En el sector de consumo están el crowdticketing, regalo, trueque o recirculación de bienes, compraventa de objetos de segunda mano, alquiler de objetos de segunda mano, préstamo de objetos entre particulares, wiFi, energía, espacios y coworking. Para el de conocimiento y educación están los modelos de educación P2P, educación B2B, producción DIY e información. En el de gastronomía están, compartir comida entre particulares, compartir tupper entre particulares, grupos de consumo, cultivos compartidos, comunidades, y las herramientas colaborativas.

Según Adigital y Sharing España resulta difícil definir los límites fiscales, laborales, a partir de los cuales un particular deja de ser eso para ser un proveedor profesional, pero delimitando cada uno de los puntos tratados y fijando límites de ingresos que determinen cuándo existe ánimo de lucro, se puede tener una idea más clara.

“La economía colaborativa necesita un estudio detallado y adecuado a cada caso por parte de la Administración”, señala José Luis Zimmermann.

ADIGITAL. Los modelos colaborativos y bajo demanda en plataformas digitales. Marzo de 2017. [consultado 16-03-2017]. Disponible en: https://www.adigital.org/media/plataformas-colaborativas.pdf

ADIGITAL. Adigital presenta el primer estudio que define qué es y qué no es economía colaborativa. 08 de marzo de 2017. [consultado 16-03-2017]. Disponible en: https://www.adigital.org/?noticias=adigital-presenta-primer-estudio-define-no-economia-colaborativa

TICBEAT. Un estudio español define qué es y qué no es economía colaborativa. 11 de marzo de 2017. [consultado 16-03-2017]. Disponible en: http://www.ticbeat.com/empresa-b2b/un-estudio-espanol-define-que-es-y-que-no-es-economia-colaborativa/

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