Explosión de la Economía Colaborativa

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CLAVES:

  • La economía colaborativa seguirá creciendo a un ritmo exponencial, y en una década se multiplicará por diez.
  • No todas las industrias tienen el mismo potencial para crear plataformas de consumo colaborativo, ni obtienen en el mismo retorno o beneficio.
  • Para las empresas tradicionales se puede convertir en una oportunidad de ser más eficientes y rentables, incorporando la colaboración dentro de su modelo.
  • En 2013 el negocio del consumo colaborativo era de 3.500 millones de dólares con crecimientos anuales del 25%.

Todo parece indicar que la economía colaborativa seguirá creciendo a un ritmo exponencial, y en una década se multiplicará por diez. La Unión Europea cuantifica el volumen de este tipo de transacciones en 28.000 millones de euros para el 2015, pero según la consultora PwC la burbuja seguirá creciendo y calcula que en diez años movilizará 300.000 millones de euros.

1
Fuente: PWC

Hasta el año pasado, había más de 7.500 empresas y plataformas en el mundo que apostaban por este modelo de negocio, donde los interesados se conectan directamente con los proveedores de los servicios, y pueden coordinarse para compartir el uso de un coche, dormir en una casa o preparar una comida especial por tarifas más económicas que los precios de mercado.

En España, este tipo de economía llegó entre el 2012 y el 2013, y sobre todo de la mano de empresas relacionadas con el turismo, como Airbnb para el alojamiento, o Uber y Blablabla Car para el transporte. Pero luego se expandió a otras actividades económicas, como la venta de productos de segunda mano (Wallapop) las finanzas y los préstamos (Zank), la educación (Tutellus), el uso de herramientas (Relendo), intercambio de ropa para niños (Grownies), la gastronomía (Social Dining) o hasta buscar lugar para aparcar (Parclick).

En Estados Unidos, señala el informe, una de cada cinco personas ha participado de los servicios de la economía colaborativa, y los mayores usuarios son las personas de 25 a 45 años, que concentran una de cada dos actividades.

[section label=”Ventajas y límites de la economía colaborativa” anchor=”Ventajas y límites de la economía colaborativa”]

Ventajas y límites de la economía colaborativa

La escuela de negocios OBS, que ha tomado las estadísticas de PwC, ha realizado un estudio llamado “Los límites de la economía colaborativa“, en donde se describe que, a favor, este tipo de transacciones tiene el viento de cola que proporciona la exposición por Internet y la difusión viral por redes sociales. Además, permiten ahorrar tiempo y costes de gestión, al mismo tiempo que automatizan los procesos y funcionan en entornos con mayor transparencia informativa.

Pero también hay problemas a la vista, como el vacío legal y social que tienen varias empresas frente a las tradicionales. En el caso de los alquileres de habitaciones, se choca con las normativas de alojamiento y la oposición de los vecinos que sufren por inquilinos incívicos. O en el caso de las plataformas que permiten compartir coche, con la oposición del colectivo de los taxistas.

El estudio indica que, si bien la economía colaborativa se adapta a mercados ya existentes, “no todas las industrias tienen el mismo potencial para crear plataformas de consumo colaborativo, ni obtienen en el mismo retorno o beneficio“.

La clave para que funcione es que, además de presentar un servicio eficaz para el consumidor final, permita reducir los costes de transacción. De lo contrario, la propuesta morirá al poco tiempo.

limites-economia-colaborativa-infografia-78635
Fuente: OBS

[section label=”El impacto en las industrias tradicionales” anchor=”El impacto en las industrias tradicionales”]

El impacto en las industrias tradicionales

Los actores tradicionales, deben entender que tienen que evolucionar, si no quieren desaparecer en el mercado”. Así de contundente se muestra José Antonio Lorenzo, Director General de IDC España, quien asume que “todo lo que nos rodea ha cambiado. Las formas de comunicarnos, de elegir un producto o de comprar, no tienen nada que ver con lo que teníamos hasta hace muy pocos años”.

En este nuevo entorno, los sectores tradicionales como el hotelero, el de bienes de consumo y retail, el de la automoción o el del entretenimiento son algunos de los que se ya se están viendo altamente impactados por la entrada de nuevos actores que construyen su oferta y compiten a través de la colaboración.

Más del 30% de los puestos de trabajo de una oficina están sin ocupar. El sector industrial tiene de media un 20% de su capacidad sin utilizar. El 25% de los camiones americanos viajan vacíos diariamente. La mayor parte de les empresas no utilizan el 100% de sus recursos productivos”, explica el director general de IDC en España. “Con todo ello, las cuentas de resultados de estas compañías se ven afectadas negativamente por la infrautilización de sus capacidades. Nosotros pensamos que este problema se puede convertir en una oportunidad de ser más eficientes y rentables, si incorporan la colaboración dentro de su modelo de negocio. Ya estamos viendo a nuestro alrededor empresas que están poniendo en marcha esta idea”.

2
Fuente: PWC

[section label=”Cuantificando el consumo colaborativo” anchor=”Cuantificando el consumo colaborativo”]

Cuantificando el consumo colaborativo

En España la economía colaborativa es una tendencia en alza que parece convencer a los consumidores y usuarios y que a las empresas les resulta rentable, pero, ¿hasta qué punto?

Un estudio realizado en el año 2016 por Infoempresa junto con Teknautas, en el cual se analizaban las cuentas depositadas en 2014 de 17 empresas españolas de la economía colaborativa, indicaba que la mayoría de ellas se encontraban muy lejos de ser rentables. La excepción era Rentalia, un portal de alquiler de vacaciones y casas rurales pertenecientes al grupo Idealista.

Sin embargo, a nivel mundial, las cifras son mejores, así como la evolución. Y es que en el año 2013 la revista Forbes publicaba un artículo que cuantificaba el negocio del consumo colaborativo en 3.500 millones de dólares con crecimientos anuales del 25%. Por otro lado, el GSMA (Group Special Mobile Association) planteaba que el año 2015 había terminado con más de 7.500 plataformas colaborativas. Además, indicaba que el potencial para el año 2016 era de generar un millón de nuevos empleos a nivel mundial.

DOCUMENTO COMPLETO: Los límites de la economía colaborativa

doc

OBS. Los límites de la economía colaborativa. 27 de julio de 2016 [consultado 03-08-2016]. Disponible en: http://www.obs-edu.com/noticias/estudio-obs/estudio-obs-los-limites-de-la-economia-colaborativa/

PWC. The rise of the Sharing Economy. [consultado 03-08-2016]. Disponible en: http://thinkers50.com/wp-content/uploads/The-Rise-of-the-Sharing-Economy.pdf

TICBEAT. ¿Cuál es el impacto de la economía colaborativa en la economía tradicional?. 17 de julio de 2016 [consultado 03-08-2016]. Disponible en: http://www.ticbeat.com/tecnologias/cual-es-el-impacto-de-la-economia-colaborativa-en-la-economia-tradicional/?utm_content=bufferdd446&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer

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    Phospho-HDACs interact with and are exported from the nucleus by the nuclear exportin protein CRM1 .

    Release of class II HDACs from myocyte enhancer issue
    2 allows for binding of p300 to MEF2, acetylation of histones
    and nucleosome rest, and activation of fetal cardiac genes.
    INHIBITION OF SKELETAL MUSCLE DIFFERENTIATION BY
    CLASS I HDAC-MYOD INTERACTIONS Studies have also suggested roles for
    class I HDACs within the control of MyoD perform.

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    Phosphorylation-dependent binding of proteins to the amino-termini of sophistication II HDACs masks this NLS and prevents
    nuclear import. Conversely, a chromosome region maintenance 1 -dependent nuclear
    export sign is present at the extreme C termini of HDACs
    4, 5, and 7 and the complete-length isoforms of HDAC9 (Fig.
    1A) . The truncated isoforms of HDAC9, variants 1, 2, and three,
    lack the C-terminal NES and are constitutively nuclear.

    This NES, in those class IIa HDACs which have it, becomes active
    upon binding of proteins to the N terminus of sophistication II HDACs and
    drives their relocalization to the cytoplasm.
    BCL6 and BCoR BCL6 is an oncogene concerned within the pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphomas.
    It accommodates Krüppel-like zinc finger motifs and acts as a sequence-particular transcriptional repressor (26–28).

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    However, overexpression of Hst2p results in a derepression of telomeric
    silencing whereas increasing silencing at the rDNA locus .

    Hst2p and Sir2p might compete for a substrate or ligand
    required for Sir2p to perform silencing features on the telomere but not the
    rDNA array .

    In yeast, Hst3/Hst4 double mutants are defective
    in telomeric silencing .

    In contrast to Hst1p, Hst2p does not restore silencing
    in a Sir2 deletion mutant.

    In addition, HST3 and HST4 collectively contribute to proper cell
    cycle progression, radiation resistance, and genomic stability, thereby establishing new connections between silencing and these fundamental cellular processes .

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    Microarray comparisons had been made between murine
    cardiomyocytes that were expressing a signal-resistant mutant of HDAC5 vs
    wild-type cardiomyocytes. The one differentially regulated gene that was
    not already identified to be a MEF2 target that was investigated was peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
    γ coactivator 1α, an important regulator
    of mitochondrial biogenesis .

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    Microarray studies present that it has a job in regulating genes concerned in B-cell activation and differentiation, inflammation, and cell-cycle regulation .
    Recent experiments showed that BCL6 can recruit the category IIa HDACs
    through a direct interaction between a conserved area within the N-terminal domain of class IIa HDACs (corresponding to residues 123–292 of HDAC5) and the C-terminal zinc finger area of BCL6.

    The N-terminal BTB/POZ area of BCL6 can also bind both to silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors ,
    resulting in the recruitment of class IIa HDACs by
    way of a complex, described under (31–33), or to BCoR. BCoR is a corepressor that was cloned by
    way of its interplay with BCL6 and that interacts specifically with each class I and sophistication IIa HDACs .
    Thus, class IIa HDACs could be recruited by BCL6 by way of three separate mechanisms and should take part in a ternary complex containing both BCL6 and BCoR.
    Hopefully, future experiments will elucidate
    the position of this complicated in regulating BCL6 target genes.
    mutants die throughout embryogenesis and the perinatal period from ventricular septal defects and thin ventricular partitions, which typically come up from abnormalities in development
    and maturation of cardiomyocytes.

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    As with Scriptaid, another HDAC inhibitor, Trapoxin-B, was
    additionally in a position to inhibit SOD-1 aggresome formation .

    Trapoxin-B, however, inhibits all HDACs besides HDAC6 .
    Thus, in the presence of a drug that blocks all HDACs however HDAC6, aggresomes of nonubiquitinated proteins
    couldn’t kind . This is consistent with the finding of Kawaguchi et
    al. that HDAC6 isn’t required to form aggresomes of the nonubiquitinated protein GFP250.

    Taken collectively, these data suggest that a number of HDAC relations, apart
    from HDAC6, are important for forming aggresomes with nonubiquitinated proteins (Fig.
    2B). Identifying a putative HDAC that’s essential for SOD-1 aggresome
    formation could be of nice significance and would counsel
    that HDAC family members may play a more general role in regulating misfolded proteins.
    Elucidating how nonubiquitinated misfolded proteins are acknowledged and processed
    might be crucial for our understanding of how cells handle misfolded protein stress.
    This could be especially relevant to illnesses that contain the aggregation of nonubiquitinated proteins, similar to SOD-1-induced ALS.
    of genes, there was a preference for genes concerned in responses to
    metabolic stress. Interestingly, these genes were concentrated in regions round 10 to 25 kb from the telomeres, that are repressed beneath regular growth conditions.
    They additionally discovered a great correlation between genes hyperacetylated by HDA1 deletion and genes
    derepressed by deletion of the sequence-particular factor tup1, which recruits HDA1 to promoters
    .
    Hopefully, as several laboratories undertake
    related studies in numerous physiologic contexts, a clearer picture of the doubtlessly
    highly complex function of the class IIa HDACs in developmental gene regulation will start to emerge.
    Regulation of Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Signal-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is
    a hallmark of the class IIa HDACs. All the total-length isoforms
    of the class IIa HDACs can transfer between the cytoplasm and the nucleus and localize exclusively to the nucleus upon remedy with inhibitors of nuclear export (fifty three,fifty seven,75–77).
    As mentioned above, the subcellular distribution of class IIa HDACs could be regulated by
    binding to proteins, and the binding of these proteins to the category
    IIa HDACs is phosphorylation dependent .
    Mutations of the conserved interacting phosphorylation websites in the class IIa HDACs (Fig.
    1A) stop class IIa HDACs from being exported to the
    cytoplasm in response to extracellular alerts (9,sixteen,fifty three–fifty five,71,77).
    The proteins are thought to change the subcellular localization of targets
    by modulating the exercise of nuclear localization and nuclear
    export alerts . An NLS containing an arginine/lysine-rich
    motif is current within the N-terminal domains of
    all 4 class IIa HDACs, just to the C-terminal aspect of the primary binding website (Fig.
    1A) .
    Although current work implies strongly that a number of targets of runx2 are regulated
    by HDAC4, the good majority of recognized class IIa HDAC targets are recruited via interplay with MEF2 household transcription elements.
    In part, this dearth of different modes of class IIa HDAC
    recruitment may need to do with the tendency of the sphere up to now to start with a MEF2-regulated
    gene and work backward toward the class IIa HDACs.
    DNA microarray know-how should make it fairly straightforward to undertake studies that start with the category IIa HDACs and proceed ahead from there.
    The one such study printed thus far did not establish any genes that have been regulated by HDAC5 in a MEF2-impartial method.

    Both HDAC5 and HDAC9 are expressed in the creating myocardial chambers and
    interventricular septum throughout embryogenesis . In addition, class II HDACs have additionally been proven to modulate the actions
    of other transcription elements involved in myocardial development,
    such because the retinoic acid receptor, serum response issue ,
    and myocardin (70–seventy three). The absence of HDACs 5 and 9 might therefore
    affect the activities of different cardiac transcriptional activators and repressors, thereby perturbing the exactly regulated programs of
    gene expression required for cardiac growth. Activation of the fetal gene program and cardiac hypertrophy by
    signaling to class II histone deacetylases .
    In a screen for molecules that suppress SOD-1 aggresome formation, a basic HDAC inhibitor,
    Scriptaid, was recognized . Although it stays potential that
    Scriptaid inhibits SOD-1 aggresome formation by way
    of a transcription-dependent mechanism, the most
    probably interpretation is that a number of HDAC members of the family is concerned
    within the transport of SOD-1 misfolded proteins.

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    However, solely about 31% of the genes affected by HDA1 deletion are differentially regulated by
    tup1 deletion, suggesting that as yet undefined mechanisms are liable for the recruitment of
    HDA1 to the remaining loci. Unfortunately, the lack of the N-terminal area
    characteristic of the vertebrate class IIa HDACs in HDA1 clearly limits the
    degree to which this examine can make clear the potential targets of the human class IIa HDACs.

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