La economía colaborativa generará más de 82.000 millones de euros, según el MIT

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CLAVES:

  • La economía colaborativa está protagonizando una verdadera revolución, y el Instituto Tecnológico de Massachusetts calcula que tiene un potencial de 82.200 millones de euros.
  • Pero este fenómeno es ya una realidad, y su valor ronda los 26.000 millones de euros, permitiendo a los usuarios de sus plataformas embolsarse más de 2.580 millones de euros.
  • El 53% de los españoles estarían dispuesto a compartir o alquilar bienes en un contexto de consumo colaborativo. Ese porcentaje es nueve puntos superior a la media europea (44%).
  • Sin embargo, este fenómeno está encontrándose con todo tipo de impedimentos legales, siendo este uno de los principales factores que pueden frenar su desarrollo. Aun así, hay quien dice que esta revolución es ya imparable.

Compartir en vez de poseer. La economía colaborativa o consumo colaborativo quiere cambiar el mundo. Plantea una revolución abrazada a las nuevas tecnologías. El Instituto Tecnológico de Massachusetts (MIT) le calcula un potencial de 82.000 millones de euros, rondando ya hoy los 26.000 millones. Y quienes participan a título personal en este sistema basado en intercambiar y compartir bienes y servicios a través de plataformas electrónicas se embolsan, según la revista Forbes, más de 2.580 millones de euros.

De hecho, la red está llena de ejemplos que cuentan ese éxito. Sabrina Hernández, una estudiante de la Universidad de San Francisco, cobra 40 dólares (30 euros) la noche, a través del sitio DogVacay, por cuidar perros en su casa. Al mes, dice, gana 1.200 dólares. Mientras que Dylan Rogers, un vendedor de coches de Chicago, recauda 1.000 dólares mensuales alquilando su BMW Serie 6 usado en RelayRides. Dos voces entre millones que revelan el calado del cambio. Tanto que esta era de la economía compartida “crea nuevas formas de emprender y también un nuevo concepto de la propiedad”, sostiene Thomas Friedman, columnista del periódico The New York Times.

Ahí, quizá, reside la verdadera revolución. Desde la noche de los tiempos, el sentido de posesión ha sido inherente al ser humano; sin embargo, algo empieza a cambiar. “Hemos pasado de un mundo en el que sobra de todo a otro en la que la mayoría no puede disfrutar de lo que este siglo ofrece a menos que sea compartiéndolo”, apunta el inversor en nuevos negocios Rodolfo Carpentier. “Quien no puede tener se conforma con probar. Esto es lo que hace a este movimiento imparable”.

¿Aunque es solo eso, una respuesta a la frustración? Carlos Blanco, un conocido emprendedor español, cree que esta forma diferente de consumir es “una consecuencia de la digitalización, pero también una réplica frente a los abusos en los precios, el mal servicio y la pésima regulación”. Es un caballo de Troya dentro de un sistema que fomenta que en el planeta haya objetos valorados en 533.000 millones de dólares que no se utilizan.

A partir de ese intruso se entiende que esta propuesta es algo más que sofisticados algoritmos que casan oferta y demanda. Para algunos, el consumo colaborativo es una respuesta a la inequidad y la ineficiencia del mundo. Lo cuentan los números. El 40% de los alimentos del planeta se desperdicia; los coches particulares pasan el 95% de su tiempo parados; en Estados Unidos hay 80 millones de taladradoras cuyos dueños solo las usan 13 minutos de media, y un motorista inglés malgasta 2.549 horas de su vida circulando por las calles en busca de aparcamiento. ¿Podemos consentir ese desperdicio? ¿Hacen falta tantos coches? ¿Necesitamos esas taladradoras o perder ese tiempo? Al fondo, la Tierra alcanzará 9.000 millones de habitantes en 2050. Y habrá que alimentarlos, en un tiempo donde el paro será una pandemia. Hay algo de apocalíptico si juntamos todas estas ideas, pero también de hartazgo.

El capitalismo sin control ha dejado a mucha gente desilusionada. Personas que buscan nuevos caminos que den sentido a sus vidas”, reflexiona Jan Thij Bakker, cofundador de Shareyourmeal, una plataforma holandesa dedicada a compartir comida que empezó siendo un grupo de WhatsApp y que cerrará el año con 100.000 miembros.

Porque este nuevo consumo tiene mucho de maltusiano. Se multiplica a tal velocidad que ya hay 5.000 empresas compitiendo con las tradicionales. Y en todas las actividades. Intercambio de ropa (ThredUP), coches compartidos (Zipcar, SideCar, Lyft, Bluemove, Getaround), préstamos económicos (LendingClub), alojamiento de viajeros (Hipmunk), trueque de comida (Compartoplato), crowdfunding (KickStarter, Verkami), etc.

Consciente de que, una vez abierta la caja de Pandora, las repercusiones son profundas, la Unión Europea redactó en enero pasado un dictamen de iniciativa para entender estos vientos. “El consumo colaborativo representa la complementación ventajosa desde el punto de vista innovador, económico y ecológico de la economía de la producción por la economía del consumo. Además, supone una solución a la crisis económica y financiera en la medida que posibilita el intercambio en casos de necesidad”. ¿Demasiadas expectativas?

Puede, aunque en la sociedad española el mensaje arraiga. La firma de estudios de mercado Nielsen dice que el 53% de los españoles estarían dispuesto a compartir o alquilar bienes en un contexto de consumo colaborativo. Ese porcentaje es nueve puntos superior a la media europea (44%). Aunque en países donde la recesión ha sido profunda, como Portugal (60%) o Grecia (61%), las ratios son más altas. “La crisis económica ha conducido a un cambio de mentalidad de los ciudadanos en su manera de relacionarse social y económicamente”, analiza Gustavo Núñez, director general de Nielsen Iberia.

Sin embargo, este consumo también tiene un lado oscuro. Aplicaciones como Uber o Airbnb lo han revelado. La primera conecta pasajeros con conductores; la segunda busca y comparte alojamiento. Ambas están bajo vigilancia. Uber es un gigante. En solo cuatro años de existencia ya vale 18.000 millones de dólares y opera en 132 países. Y su éxito ha chocado de frente en Europa contra el mundo del taxi, que le acusa de competencia desleal. El coloso se defiende. “No somos enemigos de los taxistas ni del sector. Las protestas [vividas la semana pasada en varias capitales europeas] son excesivas y lo único que pretenden es mantener la industria en un estado inmovilista”, argumenta un portavoz de la firma.

Tampoco se ha librado de los problemas Airbnb. Un sitio de alojamientos para particulares que surgió en 2007 y que ya ha encontrado cama a 10 millones de personas. Desde hace un par de meses, la Fiscalía de Nueva York investiga el impacto de estos alquileres a corto plazo, porque podrían restringir la oferta de inmuebles y volverlos menos asequibles en las grandes ciudades. Además, en la Gran Manzana, alquilar un apartamento completo por menos de 30 días es ilegal. Complicada convivencia. “Queremos trabajar con todas las partes implicadas en una regulación justa que permita a las personas alquilar de forma ocasional la casa en la que viven”, apuntan en Airbnb, y se refugian en los números. España es el tercer mercado más importante del mundo para la compañía, con más de 57.000 propiedades. ¿Impactarán estas cifras en su entorno? “No creo que desestabilice el sector inmobiliario, aunque puede frenar la construcción de viviendas”, observa Luis Corral, consejero delegado de Foro Consultores.

En el fondo estos modelos de éxito digitales tienen el problema de chocar contra el statu quo económico. Ya sea la industria del motor, los operadores turísticos o el mundo financiero, donde, por cierto, aparecen propuestas de desintermediación que amenazan la cuenta de resultados de los bancos, como la española Kantox, que propone el intercambio de divisas entre empresas. “Pero poco pueden hacer, la tecnología es imparable. El sector financiero será asediado como lo han sido los medios de comunicación o la música”, advierte el business angel Luis Martín Cabiedes.

De cualquier forma, compartir, prestar, alquilar son verbos que se expanden con una fuerza nunca vista por la economía mundial. Surgen miles de plataformas electrónicas que los emplean. Y aunque queda tarea pendiente —regular ciertas aplicaciones, para evitar que engorden la economía sumergida, y mejorar los derechos de los consumidores—, el éxito de esta forma de consumir revela una sociedad que quiere cambiar la manera en que vive.

Algunos ejemplos en España

Relendo es una de las startups españolas que se encuentran a la cabeza del consumo colaborativo en nuestro país. Con menos de un año de vida, esta compañía ha pasado por dos de las principales aceleradoras españolas: Plug and Play y Demium Startups, y se encuentra en fase de expansión y crecimiento. Así, esta compañía ha elaborado un informe, en formato infografía, que recoge cuáles son las principales iniciativas y proyectos nacidos en España dentro de este nuevo paradigma de economía colaborativa. “A través de la siguiente infografía lo que queremos es mostrar cuáles son ‘los Airbnb españoles’, haciendo un breve repaso a algunas de las iniciativas empresariales españolas relacionadas con este ámbito económico, desde el alquiler de productos entre particulare), compartir un coche o el alquiler de habitaciones o casas, entre otros“, señala Chatlani.

Ésta es la ruta por la economía colaborativa en España que ha elaborado Relendo:

  • Relendo: Primera plataforma que permite el alquiler de productos entre personas que se encuentran en una misma zona.
  • AlterKeys: Conecta a particulares que tienen un lugar para alquilar con quienes están buscando hospedaje.
  • Spacebee: Permite reservar espacios de trabajo de cualquier tipo cuando otras empresas o profesionales no los están usando.
  • Trip4Real: Comunidad online para viajar acompañado de guías locales que mejoren la experiencia del viaje.
  • Traity: Ofrece a los usuarios utilizar su reputación en plataformas de economía colaborativa con el objetivo de generar confianza.
  • Zank: Plataforma de préstamos entre particulares.
  • Tutellus: Plataforma de formación online en español que conecta a profesores y alumnos a través de videocursos.
  • WeSmartPark: Red de parkings colaborativos lowcost.
  • Shipeer: Conecta conductores que viajan por España con personas que quieren un paquete ahorrando dinero en los envíos.
  • Amovens: Plataforma que combina compartir trayectos en coche y el alquiler de coches entre particulares.
  • Socialcar: Plataforma de alquiler de coches entre particulares.
  • Joinuptaxi: Ofrece la posibilidad de compartir taxi con otros usuarios.
  • AreaVan: Plataforma especializada en el alquiler de autocaravanas, caravanas y furgonetas camper entre particulares.
  • Compartir Tren Mesa Ave: Aplicación para compartir billetes de Ave baratos con la tarifa mesa de Renfe.
  • Letmespace: Permite buscar y compartir guardamuebles entre particulares.
  • Nautal: Alquiler de barcos entre particulares.

EL REFERENTE. Relendo identifica las 16 empresas de consumo colaborativo líderes en España. 20 de agosto de 2015 [Consultado 21-06-2016]. Disponible en: http://www.elreferente.es/sociales/relendo-identifica-las-16-empresas-de-consumo-colaborativo-lideres-en-espana-28754

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