La economía colaborativa pide paso frente al vacío regulatorio

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CLAVES:

  • Las previsiones apuntan a un fuerte auge de la economía colaborativa en Europa en los próximos 10 años.
  • PwC estima que las transacciones podrían multiplicarse por 20 de aquí al 2025.
  • Transporte y alojamiento son dos de los sectores más afectados por esta tendencia aunque el sector de la financiación colectiva también es otro de los más importantes.
  • No obstante, queda mucho trabajo por hacer en el terreno normativo, especialmente en nuestro país.

La economía colaborativa es un modelo de prestación de servicios que ha irrumpido con fuerza en los últimos años y que está afectando a todo tipo de sectores, aunque con especial incidencia en algunos como el transporte o la hostelería, y que genera una encendida división de opiniones entre consumidores y empresas. Las últimas investigaciones al respecto apuntan a un gran crecimiento de esta tendencia en los próximos años.

Por ejemplo, según un estudio realizado por Pricewaterhouse Coopers (PwC), el monto de las transacciones que se llevan a cabo en el sector de la economía colaborativa en Europa (a través de plataformas como Airbnb o Uber) podría multiplicarse por 20 de aquí al 2025 y alcanzar los 570.000 billones de euros.

Fuente: PwC
Fuente: PwC

Las previsiones de PwC se refieren a los cinco principales sectores de la economía colaborativa:

  • Financiación (plataformas de préstamos, crowdfunding).
  • Alojamiento.
  • Transporte
  • Servicios destinados a las personas.
  • Servicios para las empresas.
Fuente: PwC
Fuente: PwC

El informe destaca que una gran parte (85%) será captado por las personas que ofrecen sus servicios y los ingresos de las plataformas colaborativas llegarán a 83.000 millones de euros en 10 años, frente a los 4.000 millones actuales.

El transporte seguirá siendo el principal sector de este tipo de economía de aquí al 2025. El alojamiento sin embargo pasará de la segunda a la tercera posición, superado por los servicios para las personas.

PwC espera que los ingresos de este ámbito aumenten de cerca del 50% por año en los próximos 10 años, gracias al desarrollo de prestaciones como la entrega de comidas a domicilio o el alquiler de material entre particulares.

Fuente: PwC
Fuente: PwC

Cuatro de los cinco sectores considerados podrían efectuar transacciones de 100.000 millones de euros por año.

En los últimos años, los ingresos de la economía colaborativa han pasado de los 1.000 millones de euros que se movieron en 2013 a los 1.800 millones en 2014 y a los 3.600 millones en 2015.

El valor de las transacciones también experimentó un gran crecimiento en los últimos tres años: de los 10.200 millones de euros en 2013 se pasó a los 15.900 en 2014 y a los 28.100 millones en 2015.

En su defensa de la economía colaborativa, la Comisión Europea publicó en junio pasado orientaciones para ayudar a los Estados miembros a garantizar el desarrollo equilibrado de la economía colaborativa en la estrategia para el mercado único.

COMISIÓN EUROPEA. Una Agenda Europea para la economía colaborativa. 02 de Junio de 2016 [consultado 07-09-2016]. Disponible en: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-2001_es.htm

PWC. How the sharing economy is reshaping business across Europe. 27 de Junio de 2016 [consultado 07-09-2016]. Disponible en: http://press.pwc.com/News-releases/europe-s-five-key-sharing-economy-sectors-could-deliver–570-billion-by-2025/s/45858e92-e1a7-4466-a011-a7f6b9bb488f

Todavía queda mucho por hacer en materia regulatoria.

La economía colaborativa fue también el asunto al que se dedicó la mesa redonda patrocinada por Funcas este año en las XXXI Jornadas de Economía Industrial (JEI), celebradas en Palma de Mallorca los dos primeros días de septiembre. En dicha mesa aportaron su visión sobre este fenómeno María Sobrino, subdirectora de Estudios e Informes del departamento de Promoción de la Competencia de la CNMC, y Kai-Uwe Kühn, de la University of East Anglia School of Economics y ex economista jefe de la DG de Competencia de la UE.

María Sobrino, Gerard Llobet y Kai-Uwe Kühn, en la mesa redonda sobre economía colaborativa. Fuente: Funcas.
María Sobrino, Gerard Llobet y Kai-Uwe Kühn, en la mesa redonda sobre economía colaborativa. Fuente: Funcas.

La mesa, moderada por Gerard Llobet (Cemfi), arrancó con la intervención de María Sobrino, que tras explicar cómo la CNMC ha defendido de diferentes maneras el acceso al mercado de estas nuevas plataformas, mediante el escrutinio regulatorio, los estudios de mercado y los recursos ante los tribunales, se centró en hablar de dos sectores en los que estas nuevas actividades han cobrado un especial protagonismo: el transporte personal y la vivienda vacacional. Lo hizo aportando evidencias, en primer lugar, de los beneficios que para el consumidor han supuesto la llegada de las plataformas colaborativas a los lugares en los que se han establecido.

Sobrino puso en entredicho las supuestas razones económicas esgrimidas a favor de la limitación de número de operadores en estos sectores y explicó cómo en algunos lugares donde el regulador ha prohibido la actividad de estas plataformas, los consumidores se han organizado para suplir su ausencia imitando su funcionamiento.

También incidió en otras ventajas de la economía colaborativa como el papel que juegan los operadores en la obtención de información o la recaudación de impuestos para la administración y, finalmente, se mostró a favor de una regulación horizontal que aborde los problemas que afectan tanto a los nuevos operadores como a los tradicionales.

Precisamente el reto que supone la regulación estas actividades fue el asunto al que se aproximó Kai-Uwe Kühn, que quiso abordar la discusión sobre los principios regulatorios ponderando un modelo de intervención enfocado al problema (problem based regulatory intervention) frente a una más tradicional regulación del modelo económico (form based intervention). Kühn, a través de ejemplos como el caso de las diferentes trabas que algunos operadores han encontrado en los distintos lugares donde se intentan establecer– explicó que el verdadero reto es conseguir una regulación clara, flexible y que se adapte a un entorno continuamente cambiante.

Kühn dedicó el grueso de su intervención a determinar primero y desarrollar después los cuatro aspectos que la regulación debe tener en cuenta:

  • El fomento de la competencia.
  • La protección del consumidor.
  • La protección de los trabajadores
  • Las externalidades derivadas de la actividad económica.

La mesa redonda hizo patente, por tanto, todo el trabajo pendiente que queda por realizar en el ámbito del fenómeno colaborativo, especialmente en nuestro país.

FUNCAS.  Economía colaborativa – mucho por hacer. 06 de Septiembre 2016 [consultado 07-09-2016]. Disponible en: http://blog.funcas.es/economia-colaborativa-mucho-por-hacer/

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