La mayoría de los españoles ya conoce el fenómeno de la economía colaborativa

1932
19580

CLAVES:

  • La inversión mundial anual en plataformas de economía colaborativa se ha multiplicado por siete solo entre 2013 y 2015.
  • La economía colaborativa revoluciona los mercados, conectando consumidores y proveedores de manera más directa y más eficiente.
  • El 42% de los españoles nunca ha oído hablar de estas plataformas para intercambiar productos o servicios, un porcentaje muy cercano a la media europea (46%).
  • Un 19% de los españoles señalan que alguna vez han participado en estos mercados colaborativos.
  • En España lo que particularmente preocupa a los usuarios es la falta de claridad a la hora de establecer sobre quién debería recaer la responsabilidad en caso de que surja un problema.

Cada vez es más frecuente acudir a un mercado de viviendas para alquilar o intercambiar pisos con un desconocido, viajar en un coche compartido, coordinar la compra de billetes de tren con tarifas más baratas u organizar paseos turísticos con locales dispuestos a enseñarnos las maravillas de sus pueblos o ciudades. Lo cierto es que hacemos uso de estas plataformas constantemente. Lo hacemos cuando consultamos Wikipedia, o cuando la gente decide compartir oficina, buscar financiación para proyectos, encontrar aparcamiento, hacer un curso online, o comprar alimentos. Y lo haremos aún con mayor frecuencia en el futuro, en ámbitos como el de la salud –como usuarios de hospitales que comparten equipamiento sanitario– o de las administraciones públicas.

La economía colaborativa es una forma de referirnos a varios tipos de modos de producción y consumo entre individuos de una comunidad con o sin fines de lucro fundamentalmente a través de las nuevas tecnologías de información y de estructuras menos jerárquicas que las presentes en los modelos de negocio tradicional. Su crecimiento en los últimos años es incontestable. Según datos publicados por la CNMC en marzo de este año, la inversión mundial anual en plataformas de economía colaborativa se habría multiplicado por siete solo entre 2013 y 2015, pasando de cerca de 1800 millones de dólares a cerca de 13000 millones de dólares.

a1
Fuente: “Economía colaborativa”, El Diario.

Allí donde puede, la economía colaborativa revoluciona los mercados, conectando consumidores y proveedores de manera más directa y más eficiente. Destruyendo y construyendo. Lo más parecido que se ha visto al proceso de destrucción creativa de la que hablaba Schumpeter.

Este proceso de innovación, empujado por las nuevas tecnologías, la expansión de la telefonía móvil, las ineficiencias regulatorias, pero también por la agudeza del ingenio en tiempos de crisis, mejora la competitividad en algunos mercados de productos o servicios y crea mercados donde antes no los había, permitiendo en muchos casos una mejor utilización de los recursos disponibles.

El estudio de estos mercados de la economía colaborativa es de particular interés desde la perspectiva de la economía, pues es el caso en el que nuevos factores tecnológicos permiten mitigar fallos del mercado relacionados, por ejemplo, con la asimetría de información entre consumidores y proveedores, la determinación de precios, o con situaciones de poder de mercado. Pero también lo es desde el estudio de la política, pues supone un movimiento hacia mercados más horizontales en donde el poder está más descentralizado y mejor distribuido, lo que supone cierta disrupción en las relaciones de poder entre los consumidores y las grandes organizaciones empresariales.

A su vez, sabemos también que los cambios tecnológicos o la aparición de nuevos productos han producido en muchas ocasiones reacciones proteccionistas por parte de aquellos que resultan perjudicados por estos procesos de innovación. Y el caso de las plataformas de economía colaborativa no ha escapado a esta norma. Las controversias alrededor de Uber o Airbnb son solo algunos ejemplos.

Pero ¿qué sabemos sobre cómo de generalizado está el uso de plataformas colaborativas en España? ¿Quiénes son los que más las utilizan? ¿Cuáles son, según los usuarios, sus principales beneficios y sus más serios problemas?

En marzo de este año, se realizó una encuesta en relación a este tema en los 28 países miembros de la Unión Europea (Flash Eurobarometer 438) por encargo de la Comisión. Ésta nos permite conocer algunos datos respecto a estas cuestiones desde una perspectiva comparada. Por ejemplo, España está entre los países en donde más se conoce este tipo de plataformas colaborativas, aunque esto no signifique un conocimiento muy generalizado. El 42% de los españoles nunca ha oído hablar de estas plataformas para intercambiar productos o servicios, un porcentaje muy cercano a la media europea (46%), pero relativamente bajo si lo comparamos con países como Reino Unido, Grecia, Bélgica, Finlandia o Portugal, en donde entorno al 60% de la población nunca ha oído hablar de plataforma de economía colaborativa. Según los datos del Eurobarómetro, Francia es el país en donde hay un mayor nivel de conocimiento respecto a estas plataformas (sólo un 14% no conoce estos mercados); seguido de Estonia, Croacia e Irlanda, en donde al menos dos tercios de los encuestados reconoce haber oído hablar de este tipo de intercambios.

a2
Fuente: “Economía colaborativa”, El Diario.

A pesar del nivel de conocimiento, la participación en la economía colaborativa es aún baja. En media, solo un 17% de los ciudadanos de la UE-28 declaran haber utilizado alguna de estas plataformas. En este sentido, España también está en el tercio más avanzado. Aunque en la cola. Un 19% de los encuestados españoles señalan que alguna vez han participado en estos mercados. Un porcentaje, de nuevo, alejado de los niveles de Francia e Irlanda, pero superiores a otras países con economías más avanzadas y más flexibles como Reino Unido, Dinamarca, Países Bajos o Suecia.

Por otro lado, entre los que han utilizado alguna plataforma de economía colaborativa, sólo un 27% indica haber ofrecido alguna vez un producto o servicio. Un porcentaje, esta vez sí, algo inferior a la media europea (32%). También vemos que los franceses no solo son los que más usan estas plataformas para adquirir bienes y servicios, sino también los que más participan como proveedores. O que en países como Finlandia, Eslovenia o República Checa, a pesar de tener niveles bajos de participación, los que entran en el mercado ofrecen, en proporción de un tercio, productos y servicios además de consumirlos.

a3
Fuente: “Economía colaborativa”, El Diario.

Si nos detenemos por un instante en los cruces con algunas variables sociodemográficas para el caso de España, aprenderemos que los hombres participan en la economía colaborativa un poco más que las mujeres  (22% vs.17%); que las personas con edades entre 25 y 39 años también lo hacen más en comparación con los que son más jóvenes que ellos –entre 15 y 24 años– (36% vs.15%), y los que son más mayores –entre 40 y 54 (20%) y de 55 o más (7%)–. Asimismo, aquellos con un mayor nivel de educación (aquellos que han seguido estudiando a tiempo completo después de cumplir los 20 años) tienen una tasa de participación significativamente mayor al resto, esto es, el 27% frente al 4% si los comparamos con aquellos que han parados sus estudios antes de los 15 años, o antes de los 20 (17%), o incluso de aquellos –presumiblemente más jóvenes – que aún siguen estudiando (17%).

Volviendo al enfoque comprado, entre los que utilizan estas plataformas, en España no valoramos particularmente que los productos o servicios ofrecidos en estas plataformas sean más baratos o gratis y mucho menos que el acceso a estos servicios se realice de una forma mucho más organizada. Pero sí el beneficio que suponen en términos de accesos a nuevos y diferentes servicios o a que el intercambio no implique necesariamente transferencias monetarias.

a4
Fuente: “Economía colaborativa”, El Diario.

Más allá de los beneficios de participar en las diferentes plataformas de economía colaborativa, lo que más interesa conocer desde el punto de vista de los reguladores son los problemas que éstas presentan. Y por ellos pregunta la Comisión. En España lo que particularmente preocupa a los usuarios de estos nuevos mercados es, primero, la falta de claridad a la hora de establecer sobre quién debería recaer la responsabilidad en caso de que surja un problema en el proceso de intercambio, es decir, en las reglas de juego (48%). Y, segundo, la falta de confianza sobre las transacciones en internet (42%). Menos importancia parece tener que la información ofrecida sobre los productos o servicios en ocasiones no sea del todo suficiente (16%) o que el producto adquirido finalmente no sea acorde con lo esperado en un primer momento (18%).

a5
Fuente: “Economía colaborativa”, El Diario.

De los cuatro problemas por los que pregunta el Eurobarómetro destaca el relacionado con la falta de claridad a la hora de establecer responsabilidades en caso de que surjan problemas en el proceso de intercambio. Un análisis exploratorio de sección cruzada señala que, en términos agregados, esta falta de claridad jurídica obviamente está relacionada de manera positiva con el nivel económico del país, el nivel de seguridad jurídica y con el nivel de confianza interpersonal en la sociedad. Por otro lado correlaciona negativamente con el porcentaje de población rural (es decir, a mayores niveles de población rural menor es el porcentaje que señala la falta de claridad sobre las responsabilidades en caso de problemas en el intercambio). En contra de lo podría ser intuitivo, ni la variación entre los niveles de educación ni el niveles de envejecimiento de la población están relacionados con este problema. Al menos, en términos agregados.

a6
Fuente: “Economía colaborativa”, El Diario.

Sin dudas, los modelos de negocio basados en los principios de la economía colaborativa serán una de las características de un siglo marcado por los avances en las tecnologías de la información. Empezar a conocer mejor qué factores permiten o bloquean su avance es uno entre los tantos retos que se nos plantean.

EL DIARIO. Economía colaborativa. Datos comparados. 27 de julio de 2016 [Consultado 09-08-2016]. Disponible en: http://www.eldiario.es/piedrasdepapel/economia_colaborativa_6_541805827.html

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