Los genes determinan el comportamiento online de los consumidores

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CLAVES:

  • La genética tiene un impacto directo sobre el comportamiento online de los consumidores.
  • La heredabilidad influye aproximadamente un 34% para las actividades educativas, un 37% en lo relacionado al entretenimiento, un 39% en videojuegos y un 24% el uso de Facebook.
  • La clave de estas diferencias individuales está en la correlación gen-ambiente, en el que el consumidor selecciona su exposición a los medios que hay en el ambiente según su carga genética.
  • A medida que disminuyan las diferencias ambientales en el acceso y la disponibilidad a los medios, las diferencias en el uso serán cada vez mayores en función de las propensiones genéticas.

Recientemente se ha descubierto que los genes también afectan a la relación de los consumidores con las marcas y que tienen un impacto directo sobre el comportamiento online de los consumidores, según el estudio Personalized Media: A Genetically Informative Investigation of Individual Differences in Online Media Use publicado en Plos One.

[section label=”Cómo estudiar la carga genética en los medios online” anchor=”Cómo estudiar la carga genética en los medios online”]

Cómo estudiar la carga genética en los medios online

En el listado de cuestiones que pueden influir en cómo los consumidores perciben los mensajes de las marcas y en cómo responden ante ellos se tiene que incluir ahora la genética. La genética tiene un impacto directo sobre el comportamiento online de los consumidores.

Hoy día se conocen los beneficios de los medios online y existen múltiples estudios sobre ello, pero en general todos los estudios psicológicos de este corte o bien se centran en muestras clínicas o en las patologías asociadas al uso de Internet o bien se han utilizado muestras reducidas. En el estudio de Plos One, se han focalizado no sólo en conductas tradicionalmente problemáticas –como el uso de sitios de entretenimiento, redes sociales o videojuegos– sino también en el uso de los medios online para fines educativos.

Para ello, se utilizó una muestra de 8500 gemelos idénticos y mellizos de 16 años y se estudió concretamente la etiología del tiempo dedicado a los medios educativos y de entretenimiento en línea, así como la heredabilidad del uso de Facebook, la red social más popular entre los jóvenes de hoy.

Estos datos fueron recopilados mediante un cuestionario online, donde los participantes indicaron con qué frecuencia utilizaban el ordenador para jugar a juegos educativos o de entretenimiento, procesamiento de textos, correo electrónico, salas de chat o lecturas online en una escala que incluía desde nunca hasta más de cuatro horas por semana.

Para medir el uso de Facebook, en primer lugar, se preguntó si tenían o no cuenta de Facebook, desde cuándo –de menos de un mes hasta cinco o más años– y con qué frecuencia revisan las actualizaciones –desde 3 o más veces por día a menos de una vez al mes–.

[section label=”La heredabilidad influye significativamente en los medios online” anchor=”La heredabilidad influye significativamente en los medios online”]

La heredabilidad influye significativamente en los medios online

Las influencias genéticas fueron importantes para el tiempo dedicado a todos los tipos de medios de comunicación, en el uso de los medios online la heredabilidad influye aproximadamente un 34% para las actividades educativas, un 37% en lo relacionado al entretenimiento y un 39% en videojuegos. Además, la carga genética afecta en un 24% para el Facebook.

journal.pone.0168895.g001
Fuente: PLOS ONE

Por otro lado, en cuanto a la carga ambiental, existe una gran influencia en el uso compulsivo de Internet (52%), las horas en línea (59%) y el tiempo dedicado a redes sociales (57%).

Sobre las evidencias relativas a la variación por género, parece ser que las mujeres dedicaban un mayor tiempo a actividades educativas online y el uso de Facebook, mientras que los hombres pasaban más tiempo jugando online. Sin embargo, estas diferencias no son significativas.

Aunque se podría esperar una influencia genética en el uso de los medios online, como para cualquier rasgo psicológico, estos son efectos importantes, mucho más importantes que la diferencia de género en el uso de los medios entre chicas y chicos” apunta Ziada Ayorec de Personalized Media y una de los cinco autores del estudio.

Tampoco se pueden sacar conclusiones respecto a la edad, ya que la muestra se centra exclusivamente en adolescentes de 16 años.

[section label=”La carga genética no sólo influye la conducta del consumidor” anchor=”La carga genética no sólo influye en la conducta del consumidor”]

La carga genética no sólo influye la conducta del consumidor

Partiendo de la base de que la genética determina gran parte de los rasgos psicológicos, no es de extrañar que también influya en la relación con los medios online. Sin embargo, no sólo la carga genética determina su personalidad y su relación con el medio.

El estudio expone un marco en el que los individuos eligen cómo utilizar los medios online que le ofrece el ambiente dirigidos por su carga genética. Por tanto, el componente clave es la correlación gen-ambiente, es decir, la elección de tal manera que los individuos no son simplemente receptores pasivos de su entorno, sino que activamente seleccionan sus experiencias en el ambiente y estas se correlacionan con sus propensiones genéticas.

Nuestros hallazgos contradicen las teorías de los efectos de los medios populares, que suelen ver a los medios de comunicación como una entidad externa que tiene algún efecto – bueno o malo – en los consumidores “indefensos”. Encontrar que las diferencias de ADN influyen sustancialmente en cómo las personas interactúan con los medios pone al consumidor en el asiento del conductor, seleccionando y modificando su exposición a los medios de comunicación según sus necesidades“, declaró Ziada Ayorec.

Hay que tener en cuenta que aproximadamente un tercio de la varianza en el uso de los medios online pueden atribuirse a influencias genéticas y se estima que los futuros estudios encontrarán estimaciones de heredabilidad aún mayores, ya que los medios online continúan influyendo nuestro ambiente y el uso de los medios de comunicación se adapta aún más a nuestras necesidades e intereses personales.

A medida que disminuyan las diferencias ambientales en el acceso y la disponibilidad a los medios, las diferencias en el uso serán cada vez mayores en función de las propensiones genéticas.

DOCUMENTO COMPLETO: Personalized Media: A Genetically Informative Investigation of Individual Differences

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PLOS ONE. Personalized Media: A Genetically Informative Investigation of Individual Differences in Online Media Use. 23 de enero de 2017 [consultado 14-02-2017]. Disponible en: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0168895

PURO MARKETING. Marketeros y medios tendrán que preocuparse también de la genética en su estrategia online. 27 de enero de 2017. [consultado 14-02-2017]. Disponible en:  http://www.puromarketing.com/30/28255/marketeros-medtendran-preocuparse-tambien-genetica-estrategia-online.html

WARC. Genes affect online behaviour. 25 de enero de 2017 [consultado 14-02-2017]. Disponible en: https://www.warc.com/Content/News/Genes_affect_online_behaviour.content?ID=cb93caa7-2ebc-425a-ad3a-a6f27b46edc5

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