Todavía hay dudas en la aplicación del smart dust

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CLAVES:

  • El Smart Dust permitirá convertir cualquier cosa en una sustancia reconocida digitalmente.
  • En evolución desde 1997, el año pasado Gartner la incluyó en su lista de “Hype Cycle for emerging technologies”.
  • La privacidad va a estar en medio del debate siempre que se intente implantar o utilizar el Smart Data en cualquier entorno.

Con los dispositivos de Internet de las cosas (IoT) desempeñando un papel cada vez más importante, hay muchas conversaciones en curso para analizar el avance de los dispositivos de IoT y su impacto en las operaciones y seguridad de TI, sin embargo, ningún dispositivo de IoT es tan increíble como el “smart dust”, que es una prueba de que la miniaturización del IoT parece estar llegando al ámbito de la nanotecnología.

[section label=”Smart Dust, una tecnología de ciencia ficción” anchor=”Smart Dust, una tecnología de ciencia ficción”]

Smart Dust, una tecnología de ciencia ficción

‘Smart Dust’ es un término que esperaría encontrarse en una película de Misión Imposible o en una novela de ciencia ficción. Es una tecnología tan pequeña y tan intrincada que podría estar en cualquier lugar y en todas partes y convertir absolutamente cualquier cosa en una sustancia reconocida digitalmente; y sorprendentemente, existe, y no es tan nueva.

[section label=”¿Cómo surgió esta tecnología?” anchor=”¿Cómo surgió esta tecnología?”]

¿Cómo surgió esta tecnología?

Su nacimiento en EE.UU. fue una especie de broma según el autor que le dio nombre a la tecnología, ya que en el momento en que se acuñó el término, allá por 1997, todo tenía que ser “inteligente”: bombas inteligentes, casas inteligentes, carreteras inteligentes… Kris Pister, este autor, es profesor de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Ciencias de la Computación en la Universidad de California, Berkeley y fundador y director de tecnología de Dust Networks, una empresa creada en 2002 y adquirida por Linear Technology en 2011. Ha estado trabajando en su idea de Smart Dust desde la mediados de los años 90.

La tecnología evolucionó a partir de un proyecto original ideado por la Corporación RAND en 1992. El proyecto inicial de Pister fue financiado por la agencia de investigación de defensa de EE. UU.

Pister dice:

“Como estudiante de posgrado en Berkeley en 1992, estaba claro para mí que la Ley de Moore, la revolución de la comunicación y la tecnología MEMS iban todos en la misma dirección: el tamaño, potencia y coste de un nodo de sensor inalámbrico estaban bajando curvas exponenciales a cero.”

En 2001, el proyecto finalmente se propuso desarrollar un dispositivo de un milímetro cúbico con un sensor, fuente de alimentación, circuitos analógicos, comunicación óptica bidireccional y un microprocesador programable. Una lista de posibles aplicaciones, que estaban adelantadas a su tiempo, incluía redes de sensores de vigilancia en el campo de batalla, teclado virtual, control de inventario y monitoreo ambiental.

[section label=”Y ¿cómo se ha desarrollado hasta hoy?” anchor=”Y ¿cómo se ha desarrollado hasta hoy?”]

Y ¿cómo se ha desarrollado hasta hoy?

Quince años es mucho tiempo en tecnología, sigue Pister:

“Cuando llegué a Berkeley y escribimos la propuesta Smart Dust en 1997, estábamos haciendo pequeños sistemas de comunicación óptica. Mostramos que se puede hacer un sensor inalámbrico autónomo completo en un paquete de cinco milímetros cúbicos, aproximadamente del tamaño de un grano de arroz.”

Los avances logrados en Dust Networks han sido suficientes para impulsar al Smart Dust y que apareciera en el informe de Gartner “Hype Cycle for emerging technologies”.

Fuente: Gartner
Fuente: Gartner

Aparece en la fase de “activación de la innovación”, que para Gartner significa:

Un avance tecnológico potencial da inicio a las cosas. Las primeras historias de prueba de concepto y el interés de los medios desencadenan una publicidad significativa. A menudo no existen productos utilizables y la viabilidad comercial no está probada.

De momento quizá no se pueda obtener ninguna previsión más allá, pero Gartner ya ha dejado caer que el Smart Dust es el futuro de IoT.

Para el evangelista inalámbrico Nick Hunn, el concepto de Smart Dust es muy seductor, pero cree que tiene un conjunto de problemas prácticos, de los cuales el más grande es la energía:

“Probablemente estemos en el punto en el que puede colocar sensores que podrían ser alimentados con energía solar de forma autónoma, pero hay una compensación en el tamaño y procesamiento de la célula solar. Si quieren monitorear constantemente, necesitan una celda más grande; alternativamente, se estarían encendiendo y apagando ocasionalmente, lo cual ofrecería sólo un subconjunto de lo que podría ofrecer el Smart Dust.”

Pister está de acuerdo en que la energía es importante, pero dice que la fiabilidad es primordial. Con un sistema que no gastara energía pero que solo obtuviera los datos la mitad del tiempo, nadie lo compraría. O peor, lo comprarían, lo probarían, lo odiarían, y luego pensarían que los sensores inalámbricos no funcionan.

[section label=”¿Qué aplicaciones puede tener?” anchor=”¿Qué aplicaciones puede tener?”]

¿Qué aplicaciones puede tener?

En realidad, no están muy lejos de la visión que tuvo Pister en 1997. La compañía está vendiendo activamente automatización de procesos industriales, monitoreo de estacionamiento, EV monitoreo de la batería y el sector de la construcción.

Existen, por supuesto, limitaciones y el problema actual al que se enfrentan la mayoría de las empresas en el espacio del sensor es el retorno de la inversión. El gobierno y la industria son oportunidades naturales, pero por el momento al menos es difícil imaginar que esto se extienda mucho más.

Para una industria:

  • Mejorar la seguridad, la eficiencia y el cumplimiento
  • Reducir los costes de sistema e infraestructura
  • Incrementar la productividad
  • Automatizar muchas tareas manuales propensas a errores que implican calibración y monitoreo.
  • Proporcionar datos precisos de la salud del motor a fin de realizar un mantenimiento más oportuno cuando sea necesario
  • Detección de corrosión en tuberías envejecidas antes de que se filtren

Para agricultores o con fines agrícolas:

  • Detectar las necesidades del cultivo, lo que resulta en una mejor gestión de la fertilización.
  • Dar a los agricultores una mejor gestión del tiempo.
  • Reducción de las entradas y aumento de las salidas, lo que resulta en un aumento de la productividad.

Para un entorno de oficina:

  • Elimina completamente los enrutadores cableados y los reemplaza con un solo chip Smart Dust que manejaría todas las funciones de hardware y software para redes distribuidas, utilizando cinco veces menos energía que las redes convencionales.
  • Los nodos Smart Dust incluso pueden estar equipados con receptores GPS. Se puede utilizar para rastrear los movimientos de los visitantes que deambulan por la oficina para ver si van a cualquier ubicación restringida.

Para fines militares:

  • Una aplicación militar, como las actividades de monitoreo en áreas inaccesibles, acompaña a los soldados y los alerta sobre cualquier veneno o sustancia biológica peligrosa en el aire.
  • Seguridad y seguimiento
  • En el ejército, pueden funcionar como un chip sensor remoto para rastrear movimientos enemigos, detectar gas venenoso o radioactividad.

[section label=”Inconvenientes del Smart Dust” anchor=”Inconvenientes del Smart Dust”]

Inconvenientes del Smart Dust

Hay una serie de ventajas de Smart Dust, pero también tiene un lado negativo.

  • Asuntos de privacidad

Una de las principales desventajas de Smart Dust es el problema de privacidad para las organizaciones que lo usan. Detectando incluso los cambios más sutiles, Smart Dust deja poco a la imaginación. Smart Dust son sensores en miniatura. Pueden grabar lo que quieran grabar. Debido a que esta nueva tecnología es tan pequeña, las personas tienen miedo de que las compañías las espíen.

Eso trae la principal desventaja para cualquier compañía que use Smart Dust. Tendrían que aconsejar a todos los que forman parte del estudio o experimento. También podría traer problemas éticos. Por ejemplo, qué empleados dejarían analizar los datos que los sensores están dando y a qué información tendrían acceso. Es probable que la privacidad sea un debate continuo y difícil en los próximos años, y Smart Dust podría estar justo en su centro.

  • Coste

Aunque el Smart Dust está ganando popularidad en muchos campos, sigue siendo costoso implementar dicho sistema en una organización. Los pequeños chips vieron bajar mucho sus precios en los últimos años, sin embargo, la implementación de todos los satélites y otros elementos necesarios puede costarle a la empresa una gran cantidad de dinero.

IDG CONNECT. Smart Dust: A revolution that’s blowing in the wind? 7 de abril de 2017. [consultado 2-11-2017]. Disponible en: http://www.idgconnect.com/abstract/25810/smart-dust-a-revolution-blowing-wind

GARTNER. Gartner’s 2016 Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies Identifies Three Key Trends That Organizations Must Track to Gain Competitive Advantage. 16 de agosto de 2016. [consultado 2-11-2017]. Disponible en: https://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/3412017

CATCH UPDATES. What is Smart Dust? Advantages & Disadvantages. 21 de agosto de 2017. [consultado 2-11-2017]. Disponible en: http://catchupdates.com/smart-dust/

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